Ehlers Band-Pass FilterHeyo,
This indicator is an original translation from Ehlers' book "Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced".
First, I describe the indicator as usual and later you can find a very insightful quote of the book.
Key Features
Signal Line: Represents the output of the band-pass filter, highlighting the dominant cycle in the data.
Trigger Line: A leading indicator derived from the signal line, providing early signals for potential market reversals.
Dominant Cycle: Measures the dominant cycle period by counting the number of bars between zero crossings of the band-pass filter output.
Calculation:
The band-pass filter is implemented using a combination of high-pass and low-pass filters.
The filter's parameters, such as period and bandwidth, can be adjusted to tune the filter to specific market cycles.
The signal line is normalized using an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) to provide consistent amplitude regardless of price swings.
The trigger line is derived by applying a high-pass filter to the signal line, creating a leading
waveform.
Usage
The indicator is effective in identifying peaks and valleys in the market data.
It works best in cyclic market conditions and may produce false signals during trending periods.
The dominant cycle measurement helps traders understand the prevailing market cycle length, aiding in better decision-making.
Quoted from the Book
Band-Pass Filters
“A little of the data narrowly passed,” said Tom broadly.
Perhaps the least appreciated and most underutilized filter in technical analysis is the band-pass filter. The band-pass filter simultaneously diminishes the amplitude at low frequencies, qualifying it as a detrender, and diminishes the amplitude at high frequencies, qualifying it as a data smoother.
It passes only those frequency components from input to output in which the trader is interested. The filtering produced by a band-pass filter is superior because the rejection in the stop bands is related to its bandwidth. The degree of rejection of undesired frequency components is called selectivity. The band-stop filter is the dual of the band-pass filter. It rejects a band of frequency components as a notch at the output and passes all other frequency components virtually unattenuated. Since the bandwidth of the deep rejection in the notch is relatively narrow and since the spectrum of market cycles is relatively broad due to systemic noise, the band-stop filter has little application in trading.
Measuring the Cycle Period
The band-pass filter can be used as a relatively simple measurement of the dominant cycle.
A cycle is complete when the waveform crosses zero two times from the last zero crossing. Therefore, each successive zero crossing of the indicator marks a half cycle period. We can establish the dominant cycle period as twice the spacing between successive zero crossings.
When we measure the dominant cycle period this way, it is best to widen the pass band of the band-pass filter to avoid distorting the measurement simply due to the selectivity of the filter. Using an input bandwidth of 0.7 produces an octave-wide pass band. For example, if the center period of the filter is 20 and the relative bandwidth is 0.7, the bandwidth is 14. That means the pass band of the filter extends from 13-bar periods to 27-bar periods.
That is, roughly an octave exists because the longest period is twice the shortest period of the pass band. It is imperative that a high-pass filter is tuned one octave below the half-bandwidth edge of the band-pass filter to ensure a nominal zero mean of the filtered output. Without a zero mean, the zero crossings can have a substantial error.
Since the measurement of the dominant cycle can vary dramatically from zero crossing to zero
crossing, the code limits the change between measurements to be no more than 25 percent.
While measuring the changing dominant cycle period via zero crossings of the band-pass waveform is easy, it is not necessarily the most accurate method.
Best regards,
simwai
Good Luck with your trading! 🙌

# Dominantcycle

[Excalibur] Ehlers AutoCorrelation Periodogram ModifiedKeep your coins folks, I don't need them, don't want them. If you wish be generous, I do hope that charitable peoples worldwide with surplus food stocks may consider stocking local food banks before stuffing monetary bank vaults, for the crusade of remedying the needs of less than fortunate children, parents, elderly, homeless veterans, and everyone else who deserves nutritional sustenance for the soul.
DEDICATION:
This script is dedicated to the memory of Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kondratiev (Никола́й Дми́триевич Кондра́тьев) as tribute for being a pioneering economist and statistician, paving the way for modern econometrics by advocation of rigorous and empirical methodologies. One of his most substantial contributions to the study of business cycle theory include a revolutionary hypothesis recognizing the existence of dynamic cycle-like phenomenon inherent to economies that are characterized by distinct phases of expansion, stagnation, recession and recovery, what we now know as "Kondratiev Waves" (K-waves). Kondratiev was one of the first economists to recognize the vital significance of applying quantitative analysis on empirical data to evaluate economic dynamics by means of statistical methods. His understanding was that conceptual models alone were insufficient to adequately interpret real-world economic conditions, and that sophisticated analysis was necessary to better comprehend the nature of trending/cycling economic behaviors. Additionally, he recognized prosperous economic cycles were predominantly driven by a combination of technological innovations and infrastructure investments that resulted in profound implications for economic growth and development.
I will mention this... nation's economies MUST be supported and defended to continuously evolve incrementally in order to flourish in perpetuity OR suffer through eras with lasting ramifications of societal stagnation and implosion.
Analogous to the realm of economics, aperiodic cycles/frequencies, both enduring and ephemeral, do exist in all facets of life, every second of every day. To name a few that any blind man can naturally see are: heartbeat (cardiac cycles), respiration rates, circadian rhythms of sleep, powerful magnetic solar cycles, seasonal cycles, lunar cycles, weather patterns, vegetative growth cycles, and ocean waves. Do not pretend for one second that these basic aforementioned examples do not affect business cycle fluctuations in minuscule and monumental ways hour to hour, day to day, season to season, year to year, and decade to decade in every nation on the planet. Kondratiev's original seminal theories in macroeconomics from nearly a century ago have proven remarkably prescient with many of his antiquated elementary observations/notions/hypotheses in macroeconomics being scholastically studied and topically researched further. Therefore, I am compelled to honor and recognize his statistical insight and foresight.
If only.. Kondratiev could hold a pocket sized computer in the cup of both hands bearing the TradingView logo and platform services, I truly believe he would be amazed in marvelous delight with a GARGANTUAN smile on his face.
INTRODUCTION:
Firstly, this is NOT technically speaking an indicator like most others. I would describe it as an advanced cycle period detector to obtain market data spectral estimates with low latency and moderate frequency resolution. Developers can take advantage of this detector by creating scripts that utilize a "Dominant Cycle Source" input to adaptively govern algorithms. Be forewarned, I would only recommend this for advanced developers, not novice code dabbling. Although, there is some Pine wizardry introduced here for novice Pine enthusiasts to witness and learn from. AI did describe the code into one super-crunched sentence as, "a rare feat of exceptionally formatted code masterfully balancing visual clarity, precision, and complexity to provide immense educational value for both programming newcomers and expert Pine coders alike."
Understand all of the above aforementioned? Buckle up and proceed for a lengthy read of verbose complexity...
This is my enhanced and heavily modified version of autocorrelation periodogram (ACP) for Pine Script v5.0. It was originally devised by the mathemagician John Ehlers for detecting dominant cycles (frequencies) in an asset's price action. I have been sitting on code similar to this for a long time, but I decided to unleash the advanced code with my fashion. Originally Ehlers released this with multiple versions, one in a 2016 TASC article and the other in his last published 2013 book "Cycle Analytics for Traders", chapter 8. He wasn't joking about "concepts of advanced technical trading" and ACP is nowhere near to his most intimidating and ingenious calculations in code. I will say the book goes into many finer details about the original periodogram, so if you wish to delve into even more elaborate info regarding Ehlers' original ACP form AND how you may adapt algorithms, you'll have to obtain one. Note to reader, comparing Ehlers' original code to my chimeric code embracing the "Power of Pine", you will notice they have little resemblance.
What you see is a new species of autocorrelation periodogram combining Ehlers' innovation with my fascinations of what ACP could be in a Pine package. One other intention of this script's code is to pay homage to Ehlers' lifelong works. Like Kondratiev, Ehlers is also a hardcore cycle enthusiast. I intend to carry on the fire Ehlers envisioned and I believe that is literally displayed here as a pleasant "fiery" example endowed with Pine. With that said, I tried to make the code as computationally efficient as possible, without going into dozens of more crazy lines of code to speed things up even more. There's also a few creative modifications I made by making alterations to the originating formulas that I felt were improvements, one of them being lag reduction. By recently questioning every single thing I thought I knew about ACP, combined with the accumulation of my current knowledge base, this is the innovative revision I came up with. I could have improved it more but decided not to mind thrash too many TV members, maybe later...
I am now confident Pine should have adequate overhead left over to attach various indicators to the dominant cycle via input.source(). TV, I apologize in advance if in the future a server cluster combusts into a raging inferno... Coders, be fully prepared to build entire algorithms from pure raw code, because not all of the built-in Pine functions fully support dynamic periods (e.g. length=ANYTHING). Many of them do, as this was requested and granted a while ago, but some functions are just inherently finicky due to implementation combinations and MUST be emulated via raw code. I would imagine some comprehensive library or numerous authored scripts have portions of raw code for Pine built-ins some where on TV if you look diligently enough.
Notice: Unfortunately, I will not provide any integration support into member's projects at all. I have my own projects that require way too much of my day already. While I was refactoring my life (forgoing many other "important" endeavors) in the early half of 2023, I primarily focused on this code over and over in my surplus time. During that same time I was working on other innovations that are far above and beyond what this code is. I hope you understand.
The best way programmatically may be to incorporate this code into your private Pine project directly, after brutal testing of course, but that may be too challenging for many in early development. Being able to see the periodogram is also beneficial, so input sourcing may be the "better" avenue to tether portions of the dominant cycle to algorithms. Unique indication being able to utilize the dominantCycle may be advantageous when tethering this script to those algorithms. The easiest way is to manually set your indicators to what ACP recognizes as the dominant cycle, but that's actually not considered dynamic real time adaption of an indicator. Different indicators may need a proportion of the dominantCycle, say half it's value, while others may need the full value of it. That's up to you to figure that out in practice. Sourcing one or more custom indicators dynamically to one detector's dominantCycle may require code like this: `int sourceDC = int(math.max(6, math.min(49, input.source(close, "Dominant Cycle Source"))))`. Keep in mind, some algos can use a float, while algos with a for loop require an integer.
I have witnessed a few attempts by talented TV members for a Pine based autocorrelation periodogram, but not in this caliber. Trust me, coding ACP is no ordinary task to accomplish in Pine and modifying it blessed with applicable improvements is even more challenging. For over 4 years, I have been slowly improving this code here and there randomly. It is beautiful just like a real flame, but... this one can still burn you! My mind was fried to charcoal black a few times wrestling with it in the distant past. My very first attempt at translating ACP was a month long endeavor because PSv3 simply didn't have arrays back then. Anyways, this is ACP with a newer engine, I hope you enjoy it. Any TV subscriber can utilize this code as they please. If you are capable of sufficiently using it properly, please use it wisely with intended good will. That is all I beg of you.
Lastly, you now see how I have rasterized my Pine with Ehlers' swami-like tech. Yep, this whole time I have been using hline() since PSv3, not plot(). Evidently, plot() still has a deficiency limited to only 32 plots when it comes to creating intense eye candy indicators, the last I checked. The use of hline() is the optimal choice for rasterizing Ehlers styled heatmaps. This does only contain two color schemes of the many I have formerly created, but that's all that is essentially needed for this gizmo. Anything else is generally for a spectacle or seeing how brutal Pine can be color treated. The real hurdle is being able to manipulate colors dynamically with Merlin like capabilities from multiple algo results. That's the true challenging part of these heatmap contraptions to obtain multi-colored "predator vision" level indication. You now have basic hline() food for thought empowerment to wield as you can imaginatively dream in Pine projects.
PERIODOGRAM UTILITY IN REAL WORLD SCENARIOS:
This code is a testament to the abilities that have yet to be fully realized with indication advancements. Periodograms, spectrograms, and heatmaps are a powerful tool with real-world applications in various fields such as financial markets, electrical engineering, astronomy, seismology, and neuro/medical applications. For instance, among these diverse fields, it may help traders and investors identify market cycles/periodicities in financial markets, support engineers in optimizing electrical or acoustic systems, aid astronomers in understanding celestial object attributes, assist seismologists with predicting earthquake risks, help medical researchers with neurological disorder identification, and detection of asymptomatic cardiovascular clotting in the vaxxed via full body thermography. In either field of study, technologies in likeness to periodograms may very well provide us with a better sliver of analysis beyond what was ever formerly invented. Periodograms can identify dominant cycles and frequency components in data, which may provide valuable insights and possibly provide better-informed decisions. By utilizing periodograms within aspects of market analytics, individuals and organizations can potentially refrain from making blinded decisions and leverage data-driven insights instead.
PERIODOGRAM INTERPRETATION:
The periodogram renders the power spectrum of a signal, with the y-axis representing the periodicity (frequencies/wavelengths) and the x-axis representing time. The y-axis is divided into periods, with each elevation representing a period. In this periodogram, the y-axis ranges from 6 at the very bottom to 49 at the top, with intermediate values in between, all indicating the power of the corresponding frequency component by color. The higher the position occurs on the y-axis, the longer the period or lower the frequency. The x-axis of the periodogram represents time and is divided into equal intervals, with each vertical column on the axis corresponding to the time interval when the signal was measured. The most recent values/colors are on the right side.
The intensity of the colors on the periodogram indicate the power level of the corresponding frequency or period. The fire color scheme is distinctly like the heat intensity from any casual flame witnessed in a small fire from a lighter, match, or camp fire. The most intense power would be indicated by the brightest of yellow, while the lowest power would be indicated by the darkest shade of red or just black. By analyzing the pattern of colors across different periods, one may gain insights into the dominant frequency components of the signal and visually identify recurring cycles/patterns of periodicity.
SETTINGS CONFIGURATIONS BRIEFLY EXPLAINED:
Source Options: These settings allow you to choose the data source for the analysis. Using the `Source` selection, you may tether to additional data streams (e.g. close, hlcc4, hl2), which also may include samples from any other indicator. For example, this could be my "Chirped Sine Wave Generator" script found in my member profile. By using the `SineWave` selection, you may analyze a theoretical sinusoidal wave with a user-defined period, something already incorporated into the code. The `SineWave` will be displayed over top of the periodogram.
Roofing Filter Options: These inputs control the range of the passband for ACP to analyze. Ehlers had two versions of his highpass filters for his releases, so I included an option for you to see the obvious difference when performing a comparison of both. You may choose between 1st and 2nd order high-pass filters.
Spectral Controls: These settings control the core functionality of the spectral analysis results. You can adjust the autocorrelation lag, adjust the level of smoothing for Fourier coefficients, and control the contrast/behavior of the heatmap displaying the power spectra. I provided two color schemes by checking or unchecking a checkbox.
Dominant Cycle Options: These settings allow you to customize the various types of dominant cycle values. You can choose between floating-point and integer values, and select the rounding method used to derive the final dominantCycle values. Also, you may control the level of smoothing applied to the dominant cycle values.
DOMINANT CYCLE VALUE SELECTIONS:
External to the acs() function, the code takes a dominant cycle value returned from acs() and changes its numeric form based on a specified type and form chosen within the indicator settings. The dominant cycle value can be represented as an integer or a decimal number, depending on the attached algorithm's requirements. For example, FIR filters will require an integer while many IIR filters can use a float. The float forms can be either rounded, smoothed, or floored. If the resulting value is desired to be an integer, it can be rounded up/down or just be in an integer form, depending on how your algorithm may utilize it.
AUTOCORRELATION SPECTRUM FUNCTION BASICALLY EXPLAINED:
In the beginning of the acs() code, the population of caches for precalculated angular frequency factors and smoothing coefficients occur. By precalculating these factors/coefs only once and then storing them in an array, the indicator can save time and computational resources when performing subsequent calculations that require them later.
In the following code block, the "Calculate AutoCorrelations" is calculated for each period within the passband width. The calculation involves numerous summations of values extracted from the roofing filter. Finally, a correlation values array is populated with the resulting values, which are normalized correlation coefficients.
Moving on to the next block of code, labeled "Decompose Fourier Components", Fourier decomposition is performed on the autocorrelation coefficients. It iterates this time through the applicable period range of 6 to 49, calculating the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier components. Frequencies 6 to 49 are the primary focus of interest for this periodogram. Using the precalculated angular frequency factors, the resulting real and imaginary parts are then utilized to calculate the spectral Fourier components, which are stored in an array for later use.
The next section of code smooths the noise ridden Fourier components between the periods of 6 and 49 with a selected filter. This species also employs numerous SuperSmoothers to condition noisy Fourier components. One of the big differences is Ehlers' versions used basic EMAs in this section of code. I decided to add SuperSmoothers.
The final sections of the acs() code determines the peak power component for normalization and then computes the dominant cycle period from the smoothed Fourier components. It first identifies a single spectral component with the highest power value and then assigns it as the peak power. Next, it normalizes the spectral components using the peak power value as a denominator. It then calculates the average dominant cycle period from the normalized spectral components using Ehlers' "Center of Gravity" calculation. Finally, the function returns the dominant cycle period along with the normalized spectral components for later external use to plot the periodogram.
POST SCRIPT:
Concluding, I have to acknowledge a newly found analyst for assistance that I couldn't receive from anywhere else. For one, Claude doesn't know much about Pine, is unfortunately color blind, and can't even see the Pine reference, but it was able to intuitively shred my code with laser precise realizations. Not only that, formulating and reformulating my description needed crucial finesse applied to it, and I couldn't have provided what you have read here without that artificial insight. Finding the right order of words to convey the complexity of ACP and the elaborate accompanying content was a daunting task. No code in my life has ever absorbed so much time and hard fricking work, than what you witness here, an ACP gem cut pristinely. I'm unveiling my version of ACP for an empowering cause, in the hopes a future global army of code wielders will tether it to highly functional computational contraptions they might possess. Here is ACP fully blessed poetically with the "Power of Pine" in sublime code. ENJOY!

Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave [Loxx]As the financial markets become increasingly complex and data-driven, traders and analysts must leverage powerful tools to gain insights and make informed decisions. One such tool is the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave indicator, a sophisticated technical analysis indicator that helps identify cyclical patterns in financial data. This powerful tool is capable of detecting cyclical patterns in financial data, helping traders to make better predictions and optimize their trading strategies. With its unique combination of mathematical algorithms and advanced charting capabilities, this indicator has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach financial modeling and trading.
*** To decrease the load time of this indicator, only XX many bars back will render to the chart. You can control this value with the setting "Number of Bars to Render". This doesn't have anything to do with repainting or the indicator being endpointed***
█ Brief Overview of the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave is a sophisticated technical analysis tool that utilizes the Goertzel algorithm to analyze and visualize cyclical components within a financial time series. By identifying these cycles and their characteristics, the indicator aims to provide valuable insights into the market's underlying price movements, which could potentially be used for making informed trading decisions.
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave is considered a non-repainting and endpointed indicator. This means that once a value has been calculated for a specific bar, that value will not change in subsequent bars, and the indicator is designed to have a clear start and end point. This is an important characteristic for indicators used in technical analysis, as it allows traders to make informed decisions based on historical data without the risk of hindsight bias or future changes in the indicator's values. This means traders can use this indicator trading purposes.
The repainting version of this indicator with forecasting, cycle selection/elimination options, and data output table can be found here:
Goertzel Browser
The primary purpose of this indicator is to:
1. Detect and analyze the dominant cycles present in the price data.
2. Reconstruct and visualize the composite wave based on the detected cycles.
To achieve this, the indicator performs several tasks:
1. Detrending the price data: The indicator preprocesses the price data using various detrending techniques, such as Hodrick-Prescott filters, zero-lag moving averages, and linear regression, to remove the underlying trend and focus on the cyclical components.
2. Applying the Goertzel algorithm: The indicator applies the Goertzel algorithm to the detrended price data, identifying the dominant cycles and their characteristics, such as amplitude, phase, and cycle strength.
3. Constructing the composite wave: The indicator reconstructs the composite wave by combining the detected cycles, either by using a user-defined list of cycles or by selecting the top N cycles based on their amplitude or cycle strength.
4. Visualizing the composite wave: The indicator plots the composite wave, using solid lines for the cycles. The color of the lines indicates whether the wave is increasing or decreasing.
This indicator is a powerful tool that employs the Goertzel algorithm to analyze and visualize the cyclical components within a financial time series. By providing insights into the underlying price movements, the indicator aims to assist traders in making more informed decisions.
█ What is the Goertzel Algorithm?
The Goertzel algorithm, named after Gerald Goertzel, is a digital signal processing technique that is used to efficiently compute individual terms of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). It was first introduced in 1958, and since then, it has found various applications in the fields of engineering, mathematics, and physics.
The Goertzel algorithm is primarily used to detect specific frequency components within a digital signal, making it particularly useful in applications where only a few frequency components are of interest. The algorithm is computationally efficient, as it requires fewer calculations than the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) when detecting a small number of frequency components. This efficiency makes the Goertzel algorithm a popular choice in applications such as:
1. Telecommunications: The Goertzel algorithm is used for decoding Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signals, which are the tones generated when pressing buttons on a telephone keypad. By identifying specific frequency components, the algorithm can accurately determine which button has been pressed.
2. Audio processing: The algorithm can be used to detect specific pitches or harmonics in an audio signal, making it useful in applications like pitch detection and tuning musical instruments.
3. Vibration analysis: In the field of mechanical engineering, the Goertzel algorithm can be applied to analyze vibrations in rotating machinery, helping to identify faulty components or signs of wear.
4. Power system analysis: The algorithm can be used to measure harmonic content in power systems, allowing engineers to assess power quality and detect potential issues.
The Goertzel algorithm is used in these applications because it offers several advantages over other methods, such as the FFT:
1. Computational efficiency: The Goertzel algorithm requires fewer calculations when detecting a small number of frequency components, making it more computationally efficient than the FFT in these cases.
2. Real-time analysis: The algorithm can be implemented in a streaming fashion, allowing for real-time analysis of signals, which is crucial in applications like telecommunications and audio processing.
3. Memory efficiency: The Goertzel algorithm requires less memory than the FFT, as it only computes the frequency components of interest.
4. Precision: The algorithm is less susceptible to numerical errors compared to the FFT, ensuring more accurate results in applications where precision is essential.
The Goertzel algorithm is an efficient digital signal processing technique that is primarily used to detect specific frequency components within a signal. Its computational efficiency, real-time capabilities, and precision make it an attractive choice for various applications, including telecommunications, audio processing, vibration analysis, and power system analysis. The algorithm has been widely adopted since its introduction in 1958 and continues to be an essential tool in the fields of engineering, mathematics, and physics.
█ Goertzel Algorithm in Quantitative Finance: In-Depth Analysis and Applications
The Goertzel algorithm, initially designed for signal processing in telecommunications, has gained significant traction in the financial industry due to its efficient frequency detection capabilities. In quantitative finance, the Goertzel algorithm has been utilized for uncovering hidden market cycles, developing data-driven trading strategies, and optimizing risk management. This section delves deeper into the applications of the Goertzel algorithm in finance, particularly within the context of quantitative trading and analysis.
Unveiling Hidden Market Cycles:
Market cycles are prevalent in financial markets and arise from various factors, such as economic conditions, investor psychology, and market participant behavior. The Goertzel algorithm's ability to detect and isolate specific frequencies in price data helps trader analysts identify hidden market cycles that may otherwise go unnoticed. By examining the amplitude, phase, and periodicity of each cycle, traders can better understand the underlying market structure and dynamics, enabling them to develop more informed and effective trading strategies.
Developing Quantitative Trading Strategies:
The Goertzel algorithm's versatility allows traders to incorporate its insights into a wide range of trading strategies. By identifying the dominant market cycles in a financial instrument's price data, traders can create data-driven strategies that capitalize on the cyclical nature of markets.
For instance, a trader may develop a mean-reversion strategy that takes advantage of the identified cycles. By establishing positions when the price deviates from the predicted cycle, the trader can profit from the subsequent reversion to the cycle's mean. Similarly, a momentum-based strategy could be designed to exploit the persistence of a dominant cycle by entering positions that align with the cycle's direction.
Enhancing Risk Management:
The Goertzel algorithm plays a vital role in risk management for quantitative strategies. By analyzing the cyclical components of a financial instrument's price data, traders can gain insights into the potential risks associated with their trading strategies.
By monitoring the amplitude and phase of dominant cycles, a trader can detect changes in market dynamics that may pose risks to their positions. For example, a sudden increase in amplitude may indicate heightened volatility, prompting the trader to adjust position sizing or employ hedging techniques to protect their portfolio. Additionally, changes in phase alignment could signal a potential shift in market sentiment, necessitating adjustments to the trading strategy.
Expanding Quantitative Toolkits:
Traders can augment the Goertzel algorithm's insights by combining it with other quantitative techniques, creating a more comprehensive and sophisticated analysis framework. For example, machine learning algorithms, such as neural networks or support vector machines, could be trained on features extracted from the Goertzel algorithm to predict future price movements more accurately.
Furthermore, the Goertzel algorithm can be integrated with other technical analysis tools, such as moving averages or oscillators, to enhance their effectiveness. By applying these tools to the identified cycles, traders can generate more robust and reliable trading signals.
The Goertzel algorithm offers invaluable benefits to quantitative finance practitioners by uncovering hidden market cycles, aiding in the development of data-driven trading strategies, and improving risk management. By leveraging the insights provided by the Goertzel algorithm and integrating it with other quantitative techniques, traders can gain a deeper understanding of market dynamics and devise more effective trading strategies.
█ Indicator Inputs
src: This is the source data for the analysis, typically the closing price of the financial instrument.
detrendornot: This input determines the method used for detrending the source data. Detrending is the process of removing the underlying trend from the data to focus on the cyclical components.
The available options are:
hpsmthdt: Detrend using Hodrick-Prescott filter centered moving average.
zlagsmthdt: Detrend using zero-lag moving average centered moving average.
logZlagRegression: Detrend using logarithmic zero-lag linear regression.
hpsmth: Detrend using Hodrick-Prescott filter.
zlagsmth: Detrend using zero-lag moving average.
DT_HPper1 and DT_HPper2: These inputs define the period range for the Hodrick-Prescott filter centered moving average when detrendornot is set to hpsmthdt.
DT_ZLper1 and DT_ZLper2: These inputs define the period range for the zero-lag moving average centered moving average when detrendornot is set to zlagsmthdt.
DT_RegZLsmoothPer: This input defines the period for the zero-lag moving average used in logarithmic zero-lag linear regression when detrendornot is set to logZlagRegression.
HPsmoothPer: This input defines the period for the Hodrick-Prescott filter when detrendornot is set to hpsmth.
ZLMAsmoothPer: This input defines the period for the zero-lag moving average when detrendornot is set to zlagsmth.
MaxPer: This input sets the maximum period for the Goertzel algorithm to search for cycles.
squaredAmp: This boolean input determines whether the amplitude should be squared in the Goertzel algorithm.
useAddition: This boolean input determines whether the Goertzel algorithm should use addition for combining the cycles.
useCosine: This boolean input determines whether the Goertzel algorithm should use cosine waves instead of sine waves.
UseCycleStrength: This boolean input determines whether the Goertzel algorithm should compute the cycle strength, which is a normalized measure of the cycle's amplitude.
WindowSizePast: These inputs define the window size for the composite wave.
FilterBartels: This boolean input determines whether Bartel's test should be applied to filter out non-significant cycles.
BartNoCycles: This input sets the number of cycles to be used in Bartel's test.
BartSmoothPer: This input sets the period for the moving average used in Bartel's test.
BartSigLimit: This input sets the significance limit for Bartel's test, below which cycles are considered insignificant.
SortBartels: This boolean input determines whether the cycles should be sorted by their Bartel's test results.
StartAtCycle: This input determines the starting index for selecting the top N cycles when UseCycleList is set to false. This allows you to skip a certain number of cycles from the top before selecting the desired number of cycles.
UseTopCycles: This input sets the number of top cycles to use for constructing the composite wave when UseCycleList is set to false. The cycles are ranked based on their amplitudes or cycle strengths, depending on the UseCycleStrength input.
SubtractNoise: This boolean input determines whether to subtract the noise (remaining cycles) from the composite wave. If set to true, the composite wave will only include the top N cycles specified by UseTopCycles.
█ Exploring Auxiliary Functions
The following functions demonstrate advanced techniques for analyzing financial markets, including zero-lag moving averages, Bartels probability, detrending, and Hodrick-Prescott filtering. This section examines each function in detail, explaining their purpose, methodology, and applications in finance. We will examine how each function contributes to the overall performance and effectiveness of the indicator and how they work together to create a powerful analytical tool.
Zero-Lag Moving Average:
The zero-lag moving average function is designed to minimize the lag typically associated with moving averages. This is achieved through a two-step weighted linear regression process that emphasizes more recent data points. The function calculates a linearly weighted moving average (LWMA) on the input data and then applies another LWMA on the result. By doing this, the function creates a moving average that closely follows the price action, reducing the lag and improving the responsiveness of the indicator.
The zero-lag moving average function is used in the indicator to provide a responsive, low-lag smoothing of the input data. This function helps reduce the noise and fluctuations in the data, making it easier to identify and analyze underlying trends and patterns. By minimizing the lag associated with traditional moving averages, this function allows the indicator to react more quickly to changes in market conditions, providing timely signals and improving the overall effectiveness of the indicator.
Bartels Probability:
The Bartels probability function calculates the probability of a given cycle being significant in a time series. It uses a mathematical test called the Bartels test to assess the significance of cycles detected in the data. The function calculates coefficients for each detected cycle and computes an average amplitude and an expected amplitude. By comparing these values, the Bartels probability is derived, indicating the likelihood of a cycle's significance. This information can help in identifying and analyzing dominant cycles in financial markets.
The Bartels probability function is incorporated into the indicator to assess the significance of detected cycles in the input data. By calculating the Bartels probability for each cycle, the indicator can prioritize the most significant cycles and focus on the market dynamics that are most relevant to the current trading environment. This function enhances the indicator's ability to identify dominant market cycles, improving its predictive power and aiding in the development of effective trading strategies.
Detrend Logarithmic Zero-Lag Regression:
The detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function is used for detrending data while minimizing lag. It combines a zero-lag moving average with a linear regression detrending method. The function first calculates the zero-lag moving average of the logarithm of input data and then applies a linear regression to remove the trend. By detrending the data, the function isolates the cyclical components, making it easier to analyze and interpret the underlying market dynamics.
The detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function is used in the indicator to isolate the cyclical components of the input data. By detrending the data, the function enables the indicator to focus on the cyclical movements in the market, making it easier to analyze and interpret market dynamics. This function is essential for identifying cyclical patterns and understanding the interactions between different market cycles, which can inform trading decisions and enhance overall market understanding.
Bartels Cycle Significance Test:
The Bartels cycle significance test is a function that combines the Bartels probability function and the detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function to assess the significance of detected cycles. The function calculates the Bartels probability for each cycle and stores the results in an array. By analyzing the probability values, traders and analysts can identify the most significant cycles in the data, which can be used to develop trading strategies and improve market understanding.
The Bartels cycle significance test function is integrated into the indicator to provide a comprehensive analysis of the significance of detected cycles. By combining the Bartels probability function and the detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function, this test evaluates the significance of each cycle and stores the results in an array. The indicator can then use this information to prioritize the most significant cycles and focus on the most relevant market dynamics. This function enhances the indicator's ability to identify and analyze dominant market cycles, providing valuable insights for trading and market analysis.
Hodrick-Prescott Filter:
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is a popular technique used to separate the trend and cyclical components of a time series. The function applies a smoothing parameter to the input data and calculates a smoothed series using a two-sided filter. This smoothed series represents the trend component, which can be subtracted from the original data to obtain the cyclical component. The Hodrick-Prescott filter is commonly used in economics and finance to analyze economic data and financial market trends.
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is incorporated into the indicator to separate the trend and cyclical components of the input data. By applying the filter to the data, the indicator can isolate the trend component, which can be used to analyze long-term market trends and inform trading decisions. Additionally, the cyclical component can be used to identify shorter-term market dynamics and provide insights into potential trading opportunities. The inclusion of the Hodrick-Prescott filter adds another layer of analysis to the indicator, making it more versatile and comprehensive.
Detrending Options: Detrend Centered Moving Average:
The detrend centered moving average function provides different detrending methods, including the Hodrick-Prescott filter and the zero-lag moving average, based on the selected detrending method. The function calculates two sets of smoothed values using the chosen method and subtracts one set from the other to obtain a detrended series. By offering multiple detrending options, this function allows traders and analysts to select the most appropriate method for their specific needs and preferences.
The detrend centered moving average function is integrated into the indicator to provide users with multiple detrending options, including the Hodrick-Prescott filter and the zero-lag moving average. By offering multiple detrending methods, the indicator allows users to customize the analysis to their specific needs and preferences, enhancing the indicator's overall utility and adaptability. This function ensures that the indicator can cater to a wide range of trading styles and objectives, making it a valuable tool for a diverse group of market participants.
The auxiliary functions functions discussed in this section demonstrate the power and versatility of mathematical techniques in analyzing financial markets. By understanding and implementing these functions, traders and analysts can gain valuable insights into market dynamics, improve their trading strategies, and make more informed decisions. The combination of zero-lag moving averages, Bartels probability, detrending methods, and the Hodrick-Prescott filter provides a comprehensive toolkit for analyzing and interpreting financial data. The integration of advanced functions in a financial indicator creates a powerful and versatile analytical tool that can provide valuable insights into financial markets. By combining the zero-lag moving average,
█ In-Depth Analysis of the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave Code
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave code is an implementation of the Goertzel Algorithm, an efficient technique to perform spectral analysis on a signal. The code is designed to detect and analyze dominant cycles within a given financial market data set. This section will provide an extremely detailed explanation of the code, its structure, functions, and intended purpose.
Function signature and input parameters:
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave function accepts numerous input parameters for customization, including source data (src), the current bar (forBar), sample size (samplesize), period (per), squared amplitude flag (squaredAmp), addition flag (useAddition), cosine flag (useCosine), cycle strength flag (UseCycleStrength), past sizes (WindowSizePast), Bartels filter flag (FilterBartels), Bartels-related parameters (BartNoCycles, BartSmoothPer, BartSigLimit), sorting flag (SortBartels), and output buffers (goeWorkPast, cyclebuffer, amplitudebuffer, phasebuffer, cycleBartelsBuffer).
Initializing variables and arrays:
The code initializes several float arrays (goeWork1, goeWork2, goeWork3, goeWork4) with the same length as twice the period (2 * per). These arrays store intermediate results during the execution of the algorithm.
Preprocessing input data:
The input data (src) undergoes preprocessing to remove linear trends. This step enhances the algorithm's ability to focus on cyclical components in the data. The linear trend is calculated by finding the slope between the first and last values of the input data within the sample.
Iterative calculation of Goertzel coefficients:
The core of the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave algorithm lies in the iterative calculation of Goertzel coefficients for each frequency bin. These coefficients represent the spectral content of the input data at different frequencies. The code iterates through the range of frequencies, calculating the Goertzel coefficients using a nested loop structure.
Cycle strength computation:
The code calculates the cycle strength based on the Goertzel coefficients. This is an optional step, controlled by the UseCycleStrength flag. The cycle strength provides information on the relative influence of each cycle on the data per bar, considering both amplitude and cycle length. The algorithm computes the cycle strength either by squaring the amplitude (controlled by squaredAmp flag) or using the actual amplitude values.
Phase calculation:
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave code computes the phase of each cycle, which represents the position of the cycle within the input data. The phase is calculated using the arctangent function (math.atan) based on the ratio of the imaginary and real components of the Goertzel coefficients.
Peak detection and cycle extraction:
The algorithm performs peak detection on the computed amplitudes or cycle strengths to identify dominant cycles. It stores the detected cycles in the cyclebuffer array, along with their corresponding amplitudes and phases in the amplitudebuffer and phasebuffer arrays, respectively.
Sorting cycles by amplitude or cycle strength:
The code sorts the detected cycles based on their amplitude or cycle strength in descending order. This allows the algorithm to prioritize cycles with the most significant impact on the input data.
Bartels cycle significance test:
If the FilterBartels flag is set, the code performs a Bartels cycle significance test on the detected cycles. This test determines the statistical significance of each cycle and filters out the insignificant cycles. The significant cycles are stored in the cycleBartelsBuffer array. If the SortBartels flag is set, the code sorts the significant cycles based on their Bartels significance values.
Waveform calculation:
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave code calculates the waveform of the significant cycles for specified time windows. The windows are defined by the WindowSizePast parameters, respectively. The algorithm uses either cosine or sine functions (controlled by the useCosine flag) to calculate the waveforms for each cycle. The useAddition flag determines whether the waveforms should be added or subtracted.
Storing waveforms in a matrix:
The calculated waveforms for the cycle is stored in the matrix - goeWorkPast. This matrix holds the waveforms for the specified time windows. Each row in the matrix represents a time window position, and each column corresponds to a cycle.
Returning the number of cycles:
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave function returns the total number of detected cycles (number_of_cycles) after processing the input data. This information can be used to further analyze the results or to visualize the detected cycles.
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave code is a comprehensive implementation of the Goertzel Algorithm, specifically designed for detecting and analyzing dominant cycles within financial market data. The code offers a high level of customization, allowing users to fine-tune the algorithm based on their specific needs. The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave's combination of preprocessing, iterative calculations, cycle extraction, sorting, significance testing, and waveform calculation makes it a powerful tool for understanding cyclical components in financial data.
█ Generating and Visualizing Composite Waveform
The indicator calculates and visualizes the composite waveform for specified time windows based on the detected cycles. Here's a detailed explanation of this process:
Updating WindowSizePast:
The WindowSizePast is updated to ensure they are at least twice the MaxPer (maximum period).
Initializing matrices and arrays:
The matrix goeWorkPast is initialized to store the Goertzel results for specified time windows. Multiple arrays are also initialized to store cycle, amplitude, phase, and Bartels information.
Preparing the source data (srcVal) array:
The source data is copied into an array, srcVal, and detrended using one of the selected methods (hpsmthdt, zlagsmthdt, logZlagRegression, hpsmth, or zlagsmth).
Goertzel function call:
The Goertzel function is called to analyze the detrended source data and extract cycle information. The output, number_of_cycles, contains the number of detected cycles.
Initializing arrays for waveforms:
The goertzel array is initialized to store the endpoint Goertzel.
Calculating composite waveform (goertzel array):
The composite waveform is calculated by summing the selected cycles (either from the user-defined cycle list or the top cycles) and optionally subtracting the noise component.
Drawing composite waveform (pvlines):
The composite waveform is drawn on the chart using solid lines. The color of the lines is determined by the direction of the waveform (green for upward, red for downward).
To summarize, this indicator generates a composite waveform based on the detected cycles in the financial data. It calculates the composite waveforms and visualizes them on the chart using colored lines.
█ Enhancing the Goertzel Algorithm-Based Script for Financial Modeling and Trading
The Goertzel algorithm-based script for detecting dominant cycles in financial data is a powerful tool for financial modeling and trading. It provides valuable insights into the past behavior of these cycles. However, as with any algorithm, there is always room for improvement. This section discusses potential enhancements to the existing script to make it even more robust and versatile for financial modeling, general trading, advanced trading, and high-frequency finance trading.
Enhancements for Financial Modeling
Data preprocessing: One way to improve the script's performance for financial modeling is to introduce more advanced data preprocessing techniques. This could include removing outliers, handling missing data, and normalizing the data to ensure consistent and accurate results.
Additional detrending and smoothing methods: Incorporating more sophisticated detrending and smoothing techniques, such as wavelet transform or empirical mode decomposition, can help improve the script's ability to accurately identify cycles and trends in the data.
Machine learning integration: Integrating machine learning techniques, such as artificial neural networks or support vector machines, can help enhance the script's predictive capabilities, leading to more accurate financial models.
Enhancements for General and Advanced Trading
Customizable indicator integration: Allowing users to integrate their own technical indicators can help improve the script's effectiveness for both general and advanced trading. By enabling the combination of the dominant cycle information with other technical analysis tools, traders can develop more comprehensive trading strategies.
Risk management and position sizing: Incorporating risk management and position sizing functionality into the script can help traders better manage their trades and control potential losses. This can be achieved by calculating the optimal position size based on the user's risk tolerance and account size.
Multi-timeframe analysis: Enhancing the script to perform multi-timeframe analysis can provide traders with a more holistic view of market trends and cycles. By identifying dominant cycles on different timeframes, traders can gain insights into the potential confluence of cycles and make better-informed trading decisions.
Enhancements for High-Frequency Finance Trading
Algorithm optimization: To ensure the script's suitability for high-frequency finance trading, optimizing the algorithm for faster execution is crucial. This can be achieved by employing efficient data structures and refining the calculation methods to minimize computational complexity.
Real-time data streaming: Integrating real-time data streaming capabilities into the script can help high-frequency traders react to market changes more quickly. By continuously updating the cycle information based on real-time market data, traders can adapt their strategies accordingly and capitalize on short-term market fluctuations.
Order execution and trade management: To fully leverage the script's capabilities for high-frequency trading, implementing functionality for automated order execution and trade management is essential. This can include features such as stop-loss and take-profit orders, trailing stops, and automated trade exit strategies.
While the existing Goertzel algorithm-based script is a valuable tool for detecting dominant cycles in financial data, there are several potential enhancements that can make it even more powerful for financial modeling, general trading, advanced trading, and high-frequency finance trading. By incorporating these improvements, the script can become a more versatile and effective tool for traders and financial analysts alike.
█ Understanding the Limitations of the Goertzel Algorithm
While the Goertzel algorithm-based script for detecting dominant cycles in financial data provides valuable insights, it is important to be aware of its limitations and drawbacks. Some of the key drawbacks of this indicator are:
Lagging nature:
As with many other technical indicators, the Goertzel algorithm-based script can suffer from lagging effects, meaning that it may not immediately react to real-time market changes. This lag can lead to late entries and exits, potentially resulting in reduced profitability or increased losses.
Parameter sensitivity:
The performance of the script can be sensitive to the chosen parameters, such as the detrending methods, smoothing techniques, and cycle detection settings. Improper parameter selection may lead to inaccurate cycle detection or increased false signals, which can negatively impact trading performance.
Complexity:
The Goertzel algorithm itself is relatively complex, making it difficult for novice traders or those unfamiliar with the concept of cycle analysis to fully understand and effectively utilize the script. This complexity can also make it challenging to optimize the script for specific trading styles or market conditions.
Overfitting risk:
As with any data-driven approach, there is a risk of overfitting when using the Goertzel algorithm-based script. Overfitting occurs when a model becomes too specific to the historical data it was trained on, leading to poor performance on new, unseen data. This can result in misleading signals and reduced trading performance.
Limited applicability:
The Goertzel algorithm-based script may not be suitable for all markets, trading styles, or timeframes. Its effectiveness in detecting cycles may be limited in certain market conditions, such as during periods of extreme volatility or low liquidity.
While the Goertzel algorithm-based script offers valuable insights into dominant cycles in financial data, it is essential to consider its drawbacks and limitations when incorporating it into a trading strategy. Traders should always use the script in conjunction with other technical and fundamental analysis tools, as well as proper risk management, to make well-informed trading decisions.
█ Interpreting Results
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave indicator can be interpreted by analyzing the plotted lines. The indicator plots two lines: composite waves. The composite wave represents the composite wave of the price data.
The composite wave line displays a solid line, with green indicating a bullish trend and red indicating a bearish trend.
Interpreting the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave indicator involves identifying the trend of the composite wave lines and matching them with the corresponding bullish or bearish color.
█ Conclusion
The Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave indicator is a powerful tool for identifying and analyzing cyclical patterns in financial markets. Its ability to detect multiple cycles of varying frequencies and strengths make it a valuable addition to any trader's technical analysis toolkit. However, it is important to keep in mind that the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave indicator should be used in conjunction with other technical analysis tools and fundamental analysis to achieve the best results. With continued refinement and development, the Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave indicator has the potential to become a highly effective tool for financial modeling, general trading, advanced trading, and high-frequency finance trading. Its accuracy and versatility make it a promising candidate for further research and development.
█ Footnotes
What is the Bartels Test for Cycle Significance?
The Bartels Cycle Significance Test is a statistical method that determines whether the peaks and troughs of a time series are statistically significant. The test is named after its inventor, George Bartels, who developed it in the mid-20th century.
The Bartels test is designed to analyze the cyclical components of a time series, which can help traders and analysts identify trends and cycles in financial markets. The test calculates a Bartels statistic, which measures the degree of non-randomness or autocorrelation in the time series.
The Bartels statistic is calculated by first splitting the time series into two halves and calculating the range of the peaks and troughs in each half. The test then compares these ranges using a t-test, which measures the significance of the difference between the two ranges.
If the Bartels statistic is greater than a critical value, it indicates that the peaks and troughs in the time series are non-random and that there is a significant cyclical component to the data. Conversely, if the Bartels statistic is less than the critical value, it suggests that the peaks and troughs are random and that there is no significant cyclical component.
The Bartels Cycle Significance Test is particularly useful in financial analysis because it can help traders and analysts identify significant cycles in asset prices, which can in turn inform investment decisions. However, it is important to note that the test is not perfect and can produce false signals in certain situations, particularly in noisy or volatile markets. Therefore, it is always recommended to use the test in conjunction with other technical and fundamental indicators to confirm trends and cycles.
Deep-dive into the Hodrick-Prescott Fitler
The Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter is a statistical tool used in economics and finance to separate a time series into two components: a trend component and a cyclical component. It is a powerful tool for identifying long-term trends in economic and financial data and is widely used by economists, central banks, and financial institutions around the world.
The HP filter was first introduced in the 1990s by economists Robert Hodrick and Edward Prescott. It is a simple, two-parameter filter that separates a time series into a trend component and a cyclical component. The trend component represents the long-term behavior of the data, while the cyclical component captures the shorter-term fluctuations around the trend.
The HP filter works by minimizing the following objective function:
Minimize: (Sum of Squared Deviations) + λ (Sum of Squared Second Differences)
Where:
1. The first term represents the deviation of the data from the trend.
2. The second term represents the smoothness of the trend.
3. λ is a smoothing parameter that determines the degree of smoothness of the trend.
The smoothing parameter λ is typically set to a value between 100 and 1600, depending on the frequency of the data. Higher values of λ lead to a smoother trend, while lower values lead to a more volatile trend.
The HP filter has several advantages over other smoothing techniques. It is a non-parametric method, meaning that it does not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. It also allows for easy comparison of trends across different time series and can be used with data of any frequency.
However, the HP filter also has some limitations. It assumes that the trend is a smooth function, which may not be the case in some situations. It can also be sensitive to changes in the smoothing parameter λ, which may result in different trends for the same data. Additionally, the filter may produce unrealistic trends for very short time series.
Despite these limitations, the HP filter remains a valuable tool for analyzing economic and financial data. It is widely used by central banks and financial institutions to monitor long-term trends in the economy, and it can be used to identify turning points in the business cycle. The filter can also be used to analyze asset prices, exchange rates, and other financial variables.
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is a powerful tool for analyzing economic and financial data. It separates a time series into a trend component and a cyclical component, allowing for easy identification of long-term trends and turning points in the business cycle. While it has some limitations, it remains a valuable tool for economists, central banks, and financial institutions around the world.

Goertzel Browser [Loxx]As the financial markets become increasingly complex and data-driven, traders and analysts must leverage powerful tools to gain insights and make informed decisions. One such tool is the Goertzel Browser indicator, a sophisticated technical analysis indicator that helps identify cyclical patterns in financial data. This powerful tool is capable of detecting cyclical patterns in financial data, helping traders to make better predictions and optimize their trading strategies. With its unique combination of mathematical algorithms and advanced charting capabilities, this indicator has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach financial modeling and trading.
█ Brief Overview of the Goertzel Browser
The Goertzel Browser is a sophisticated technical analysis tool that utilizes the Goertzel algorithm to analyze and visualize cyclical components within a financial time series. By identifying these cycles and their characteristics, the indicator aims to provide valuable insights into the market's underlying price movements, which could potentially be used for making informed trading decisions.
The primary purpose of this indicator is to:
1. Detect and analyze the dominant cycles present in the price data.
2. Reconstruct and visualize the composite wave based on the detected cycles.
3. Project the composite wave into the future, providing a potential roadmap for upcoming price movements.
To achieve this, the indicator performs several tasks:
1. Detrending the price data: The indicator preprocesses the price data using various detrending techniques, such as Hodrick-Prescott filters, zero-lag moving averages, and linear regression, to remove the underlying trend and focus on the cyclical components.
2. Applying the Goertzel algorithm: The indicator applies the Goertzel algorithm to the detrended price data, identifying the dominant cycles and their characteristics, such as amplitude, phase, and cycle strength.
3. Constructing the composite wave: The indicator reconstructs the composite wave by combining the detected cycles, either by using a user-defined list of cycles or by selecting the top N cycles based on their amplitude or cycle strength.
4. Visualizing the composite wave: The indicator plots the composite wave, using solid lines for the past and dotted lines for the future projections. The color of the lines indicates whether the wave is increasing or decreasing.
5. Displaying cycle information: The indicator provides a table that displays detailed information about the detected cycles, including their rank, period, Bartel's test results, amplitude, and phase.
This indicator is a powerful tool that employs the Goertzel algorithm to analyze and visualize the cyclical components within a financial time series. By providing insights into the underlying price movements and their potential future trajectory, the indicator aims to assist traders in making more informed decisions.
█ What is the Goertzel Algorithm?
The Goertzel algorithm, named after Gerald Goertzel, is a digital signal processing technique that is used to efficiently compute individual terms of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). It was first introduced in 1958, and since then, it has found various applications in the fields of engineering, mathematics, and physics.
The Goertzel algorithm is primarily used to detect specific frequency components within a digital signal, making it particularly useful in applications where only a few frequency components are of interest. The algorithm is computationally efficient, as it requires fewer calculations than the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) when detecting a small number of frequency components. This efficiency makes the Goertzel algorithm a popular choice in applications such as:
1. Telecommunications: The Goertzel algorithm is used for decoding Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signals, which are the tones generated when pressing buttons on a telephone keypad. By identifying specific frequency components, the algorithm can accurately determine which button has been pressed.
2. Audio processing: The algorithm can be used to detect specific pitches or harmonics in an audio signal, making it useful in applications like pitch detection and tuning musical instruments.
3. Vibration analysis: In the field of mechanical engineering, the Goertzel algorithm can be applied to analyze vibrations in rotating machinery, helping to identify faulty components or signs of wear.
4. Power system analysis: The algorithm can be used to measure harmonic content in power systems, allowing engineers to assess power quality and detect potential issues.
The Goertzel algorithm is used in these applications because it offers several advantages over other methods, such as the FFT:
1. Computational efficiency: The Goertzel algorithm requires fewer calculations when detecting a small number of frequency components, making it more computationally efficient than the FFT in these cases.
2. Real-time analysis: The algorithm can be implemented in a streaming fashion, allowing for real-time analysis of signals, which is crucial in applications like telecommunications and audio processing.
3. Memory efficiency: The Goertzel algorithm requires less memory than the FFT, as it only computes the frequency components of interest.
4. Precision: The algorithm is less susceptible to numerical errors compared to the FFT, ensuring more accurate results in applications where precision is essential.
The Goertzel algorithm is an efficient digital signal processing technique that is primarily used to detect specific frequency components within a signal. Its computational efficiency, real-time capabilities, and precision make it an attractive choice for various applications, including telecommunications, audio processing, vibration analysis, and power system analysis. The algorithm has been widely adopted since its introduction in 1958 and continues to be an essential tool in the fields of engineering, mathematics, and physics.
█ Goertzel Algorithm in Quantitative Finance: In-Depth Analysis and Applications
The Goertzel algorithm, initially designed for signal processing in telecommunications, has gained significant traction in the financial industry due to its efficient frequency detection capabilities. In quantitative finance, the Goertzel algorithm has been utilized for uncovering hidden market cycles, developing data-driven trading strategies, and optimizing risk management. This section delves deeper into the applications of the Goertzel algorithm in finance, particularly within the context of quantitative trading and analysis.
Unveiling Hidden Market Cycles:
Market cycles are prevalent in financial markets and arise from various factors, such as economic conditions, investor psychology, and market participant behavior. The Goertzel algorithm's ability to detect and isolate specific frequencies in price data helps trader analysts identify hidden market cycles that may otherwise go unnoticed. By examining the amplitude, phase, and periodicity of each cycle, traders can better understand the underlying market structure and dynamics, enabling them to develop more informed and effective trading strategies.
Developing Quantitative Trading Strategies:
The Goertzel algorithm's versatility allows traders to incorporate its insights into a wide range of trading strategies. By identifying the dominant market cycles in a financial instrument's price data, traders can create data-driven strategies that capitalize on the cyclical nature of markets.
For instance, a trader may develop a mean-reversion strategy that takes advantage of the identified cycles. By establishing positions when the price deviates from the predicted cycle, the trader can profit from the subsequent reversion to the cycle's mean. Similarly, a momentum-based strategy could be designed to exploit the persistence of a dominant cycle by entering positions that align with the cycle's direction.
Enhancing Risk Management:
The Goertzel algorithm plays a vital role in risk management for quantitative strategies. By analyzing the cyclical components of a financial instrument's price data, traders can gain insights into the potential risks associated with their trading strategies.
By monitoring the amplitude and phase of dominant cycles, a trader can detect changes in market dynamics that may pose risks to their positions. For example, a sudden increase in amplitude may indicate heightened volatility, prompting the trader to adjust position sizing or employ hedging techniques to protect their portfolio. Additionally, changes in phase alignment could signal a potential shift in market sentiment, necessitating adjustments to the trading strategy.
Expanding Quantitative Toolkits:
Traders can augment the Goertzel algorithm's insights by combining it with other quantitative techniques, creating a more comprehensive and sophisticated analysis framework. For example, machine learning algorithms, such as neural networks or support vector machines, could be trained on features extracted from the Goertzel algorithm to predict future price movements more accurately.
Furthermore, the Goertzel algorithm can be integrated with other technical analysis tools, such as moving averages or oscillators, to enhance their effectiveness. By applying these tools to the identified cycles, traders can generate more robust and reliable trading signals.
The Goertzel algorithm offers invaluable benefits to quantitative finance practitioners by uncovering hidden market cycles, aiding in the development of data-driven trading strategies, and improving risk management. By leveraging the insights provided by the Goertzel algorithm and integrating it with other quantitative techniques, traders can gain a deeper understanding of market dynamics and devise more effective trading strategies.
█ Indicator Inputs
src: This is the source data for the analysis, typically the closing price of the financial instrument.
detrendornot: This input determines the method used for detrending the source data. Detrending is the process of removing the underlying trend from the data to focus on the cyclical components.
The available options are:
hpsmthdt: Detrend using Hodrick-Prescott filter centered moving average.
zlagsmthdt: Detrend using zero-lag moving average centered moving average.
logZlagRegression: Detrend using logarithmic zero-lag linear regression.
hpsmth: Detrend using Hodrick-Prescott filter.
zlagsmth: Detrend using zero-lag moving average.
DT_HPper1 and DT_HPper2: These inputs define the period range for the Hodrick-Prescott filter centered moving average when detrendornot is set to hpsmthdt.
DT_ZLper1 and DT_ZLper2: These inputs define the period range for the zero-lag moving average centered moving average when detrendornot is set to zlagsmthdt.
DT_RegZLsmoothPer: This input defines the period for the zero-lag moving average used in logarithmic zero-lag linear regression when detrendornot is set to logZlagRegression.
HPsmoothPer: This input defines the period for the Hodrick-Prescott filter when detrendornot is set to hpsmth.
ZLMAsmoothPer: This input defines the period for the zero-lag moving average when detrendornot is set to zlagsmth.
MaxPer: This input sets the maximum period for the Goertzel algorithm to search for cycles.
squaredAmp: This boolean input determines whether the amplitude should be squared in the Goertzel algorithm.
useAddition: This boolean input determines whether the Goertzel algorithm should use addition for combining the cycles.
useCosine: This boolean input determines whether the Goertzel algorithm should use cosine waves instead of sine waves.
UseCycleStrength: This boolean input determines whether the Goertzel algorithm should compute the cycle strength, which is a normalized measure of the cycle's amplitude.
WindowSizePast and WindowSizeFuture: These inputs define the window size for past and future projections of the composite wave.
FilterBartels: This boolean input determines whether Bartel's test should be applied to filter out non-significant cycles.
BartNoCycles: This input sets the number of cycles to be used in Bartel's test.
BartSmoothPer: This input sets the period for the moving average used in Bartel's test.
BartSigLimit: This input sets the significance limit for Bartel's test, below which cycles are considered insignificant.
SortBartels: This boolean input determines whether the cycles should be sorted by their Bartel's test results.
UseCycleList: This boolean input determines whether a user-defined list of cycles should be used for constructing the composite wave. If set to false, the top N cycles will be used.
Cycle1, Cycle2, Cycle3, Cycle4, and Cycle5: These inputs define the user-defined list of cycles when 'UseCycleList' is set to true. If using a user-defined list, each of these inputs represents the period of a specific cycle to include in the composite wave.
StartAtCycle: This input determines the starting index for selecting the top N cycles when UseCycleList is set to false. This allows you to skip a certain number of cycles from the top before selecting the desired number of cycles.
UseTopCycles: This input sets the number of top cycles to use for constructing the composite wave when UseCycleList is set to false. The cycles are ranked based on their amplitudes or cycle strengths, depending on the UseCycleStrength input.
SubtractNoise: This boolean input determines whether to subtract the noise (remaining cycles) from the composite wave. If set to true, the composite wave will only include the top N cycles specified by UseTopCycles.
█ Exploring Auxiliary Functions
The following functions demonstrate advanced techniques for analyzing financial markets, including zero-lag moving averages, Bartels probability, detrending, and Hodrick-Prescott filtering. This section examines each function in detail, explaining their purpose, methodology, and applications in finance. We will examine how each function contributes to the overall performance and effectiveness of the indicator and how they work together to create a powerful analytical tool.
Zero-Lag Moving Average:
The zero-lag moving average function is designed to minimize the lag typically associated with moving averages. This is achieved through a two-step weighted linear regression process that emphasizes more recent data points. The function calculates a linearly weighted moving average (LWMA) on the input data and then applies another LWMA on the result. By doing this, the function creates a moving average that closely follows the price action, reducing the lag and improving the responsiveness of the indicator.
The zero-lag moving average function is used in the indicator to provide a responsive, low-lag smoothing of the input data. This function helps reduce the noise and fluctuations in the data, making it easier to identify and analyze underlying trends and patterns. By minimizing the lag associated with traditional moving averages, this function allows the indicator to react more quickly to changes in market conditions, providing timely signals and improving the overall effectiveness of the indicator.
Bartels Probability:
The Bartels probability function calculates the probability of a given cycle being significant in a time series. It uses a mathematical test called the Bartels test to assess the significance of cycles detected in the data. The function calculates coefficients for each detected cycle and computes an average amplitude and an expected amplitude. By comparing these values, the Bartels probability is derived, indicating the likelihood of a cycle's significance. This information can help in identifying and analyzing dominant cycles in financial markets.
The Bartels probability function is incorporated into the indicator to assess the significance of detected cycles in the input data. By calculating the Bartels probability for each cycle, the indicator can prioritize the most significant cycles and focus on the market dynamics that are most relevant to the current trading environment. This function enhances the indicator's ability to identify dominant market cycles, improving its predictive power and aiding in the development of effective trading strategies.
Detrend Logarithmic Zero-Lag Regression:
The detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function is used for detrending data while minimizing lag. It combines a zero-lag moving average with a linear regression detrending method. The function first calculates the zero-lag moving average of the logarithm of input data and then applies a linear regression to remove the trend. By detrending the data, the function isolates the cyclical components, making it easier to analyze and interpret the underlying market dynamics.
The detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function is used in the indicator to isolate the cyclical components of the input data. By detrending the data, the function enables the indicator to focus on the cyclical movements in the market, making it easier to analyze and interpret market dynamics. This function is essential for identifying cyclical patterns and understanding the interactions between different market cycles, which can inform trading decisions and enhance overall market understanding.
Bartels Cycle Significance Test:
The Bartels cycle significance test is a function that combines the Bartels probability function and the detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function to assess the significance of detected cycles. The function calculates the Bartels probability for each cycle and stores the results in an array. By analyzing the probability values, traders and analysts can identify the most significant cycles in the data, which can be used to develop trading strategies and improve market understanding.
The Bartels cycle significance test function is integrated into the indicator to provide a comprehensive analysis of the significance of detected cycles. By combining the Bartels probability function and the detrend logarithmic zero-lag regression function, this test evaluates the significance of each cycle and stores the results in an array. The indicator can then use this information to prioritize the most significant cycles and focus on the most relevant market dynamics. This function enhances the indicator's ability to identify and analyze dominant market cycles, providing valuable insights for trading and market analysis.
Hodrick-Prescott Filter:
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is a popular technique used to separate the trend and cyclical components of a time series. The function applies a smoothing parameter to the input data and calculates a smoothed series using a two-sided filter. This smoothed series represents the trend component, which can be subtracted from the original data to obtain the cyclical component. The Hodrick-Prescott filter is commonly used in economics and finance to analyze economic data and financial market trends.
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is incorporated into the indicator to separate the trend and cyclical components of the input data. By applying the filter to the data, the indicator can isolate the trend component, which can be used to analyze long-term market trends and inform trading decisions. Additionally, the cyclical component can be used to identify shorter-term market dynamics and provide insights into potential trading opportunities. The inclusion of the Hodrick-Prescott filter adds another layer of analysis to the indicator, making it more versatile and comprehensive.
Detrending Options: Detrend Centered Moving Average:
The detrend centered moving average function provides different detrending methods, including the Hodrick-Prescott filter and the zero-lag moving average, based on the selected detrending method. The function calculates two sets of smoothed values using the chosen method and subtracts one set from the other to obtain a detrended series. By offering multiple detrending options, this function allows traders and analysts to select the most appropriate method for their specific needs and preferences.
The detrend centered moving average function is integrated into the indicator to provide users with multiple detrending options, including the Hodrick-Prescott filter and the zero-lag moving average. By offering multiple detrending methods, the indicator allows users to customize the analysis to their specific needs and preferences, enhancing the indicator's overall utility and adaptability. This function ensures that the indicator can cater to a wide range of trading styles and objectives, making it a valuable tool for a diverse group of market participants.
The auxiliary functions functions discussed in this section demonstrate the power and versatility of mathematical techniques in analyzing financial markets. By understanding and implementing these functions, traders and analysts can gain valuable insights into market dynamics, improve their trading strategies, and make more informed decisions. The combination of zero-lag moving averages, Bartels probability, detrending methods, and the Hodrick-Prescott filter provides a comprehensive toolkit for analyzing and interpreting financial data. The integration of advanced functions in a financial indicator creates a powerful and versatile analytical tool that can provide valuable insights into financial markets. By combining the zero-lag moving average,
█ In-Depth Analysis of the Goertzel Browser Code
The Goertzel Browser code is an implementation of the Goertzel Algorithm, an efficient technique to perform spectral analysis on a signal. The code is designed to detect and analyze dominant cycles within a given financial market data set. This section will provide an extremely detailed explanation of the code, its structure, functions, and intended purpose.
Function signature and input parameters:
The Goertzel Browser function accepts numerous input parameters for customization, including source data (src), the current bar (forBar), sample size (samplesize), period (per), squared amplitude flag (squaredAmp), addition flag (useAddition), cosine flag (useCosine), cycle strength flag (UseCycleStrength), past and future window sizes (WindowSizePast, WindowSizeFuture), Bartels filter flag (FilterBartels), Bartels-related parameters (BartNoCycles, BartSmoothPer, BartSigLimit), sorting flag (SortBartels), and output buffers (goeWorkPast, goeWorkFuture, cyclebuffer, amplitudebuffer, phasebuffer, cycleBartelsBuffer).
Initializing variables and arrays:
The code initializes several float arrays (goeWork1, goeWork2, goeWork3, goeWork4) with the same length as twice the period (2 * per). These arrays store intermediate results during the execution of the algorithm.
Preprocessing input data:
The input data (src) undergoes preprocessing to remove linear trends. This step enhances the algorithm's ability to focus on cyclical components in the data. The linear trend is calculated by finding the slope between the first and last values of the input data within the sample.
Iterative calculation of Goertzel coefficients:
The core of the Goertzel Browser algorithm lies in the iterative calculation of Goertzel coefficients for each frequency bin. These coefficients represent the spectral content of the input data at different frequencies. The code iterates through the range of frequencies, calculating the Goertzel coefficients using a nested loop structure.
Cycle strength computation:
The code calculates the cycle strength based on the Goertzel coefficients. This is an optional step, controlled by the UseCycleStrength flag. The cycle strength provides information on the relative influence of each cycle on the data per bar, considering both amplitude and cycle length. The algorithm computes the cycle strength either by squaring the amplitude (controlled by squaredAmp flag) or using the actual amplitude values.
Phase calculation:
The Goertzel Browser code computes the phase of each cycle, which represents the position of the cycle within the input data. The phase is calculated using the arctangent function (math.atan) based on the ratio of the imaginary and real components of the Goertzel coefficients.
Peak detection and cycle extraction:
The algorithm performs peak detection on the computed amplitudes or cycle strengths to identify dominant cycles. It stores the detected cycles in the cyclebuffer array, along with their corresponding amplitudes and phases in the amplitudebuffer and phasebuffer arrays, respectively.
Sorting cycles by amplitude or cycle strength:
The code sorts the detected cycles based on their amplitude or cycle strength in descending order. This allows the algorithm to prioritize cycles with the most significant impact on the input data.
Bartels cycle significance test:
If the FilterBartels flag is set, the code performs a Bartels cycle significance test on the detected cycles. This test determines the statistical significance of each cycle and filters out the insignificant cycles. The significant cycles are stored in the cycleBartelsBuffer array. If the SortBartels flag is set, the code sorts the significant cycles based on their Bartels significance values.
Waveform calculation:
The Goertzel Browser code calculates the waveform of the significant cycles for both past and future time windows. The past and future windows are defined by the WindowSizePast and WindowSizeFuture parameters, respectively. The algorithm uses either cosine or sine functions (controlled by the useCosine flag) to calculate the waveforms for each cycle. The useAddition flag determines whether the waveforms should be added or subtracted.
Storing waveforms in matrices:
The calculated waveforms for each cycle are stored in two matrices - goeWorkPast and goeWorkFuture. These matrices hold the waveforms for the past and future time windows, respectively. Each row in the matrices represents a time window position, and each column corresponds to a cycle.
Returning the number of cycles:
The Goertzel Browser function returns the total number of detected cycles (number_of_cycles) after processing the input data. This information can be used to further analyze the results or to visualize the detected cycles.
The Goertzel Browser code is a comprehensive implementation of the Goertzel Algorithm, specifically designed for detecting and analyzing dominant cycles within financial market data. The code offers a high level of customization, allowing users to fine-tune the algorithm based on their specific needs. The Goertzel Browser's combination of preprocessing, iterative calculations, cycle extraction, sorting, significance testing, and waveform calculation makes it a powerful tool for understanding cyclical components in financial data.
█ Generating and Visualizing Composite Waveform
The indicator calculates and visualizes the composite waveform for both past and future time windows based on the detected cycles. Here's a detailed explanation of this process:
Updating WindowSizePast and WindowSizeFuture:
The WindowSizePast and WindowSizeFuture are updated to ensure they are at least twice the MaxPer (maximum period).
Initializing matrices and arrays:
Two matrices, goeWorkPast and goeWorkFuture, are initialized to store the Goertzel results for past and future time windows. Multiple arrays are also initialized to store cycle, amplitude, phase, and Bartels information.
Preparing the source data (srcVal) array:
The source data is copied into an array, srcVal, and detrended using one of the selected methods (hpsmthdt, zlagsmthdt, logZlagRegression, hpsmth, or zlagsmth).
Goertzel function call:
The Goertzel function is called to analyze the detrended source data and extract cycle information. The output, number_of_cycles, contains the number of detected cycles.
Initializing arrays for past and future waveforms:
Three arrays, epgoertzel, goertzel, and goertzelFuture, are initialized to store the endpoint Goertzel, non-endpoint Goertzel, and future Goertzel projections, respectively.
Calculating composite waveform for past bars (goertzel array):
The past composite waveform is calculated by summing the selected cycles (either from the user-defined cycle list or the top cycles) and optionally subtracting the noise component.
Calculating composite waveform for future bars (goertzelFuture array):
The future composite waveform is calculated in a similar way as the past composite waveform.
Drawing past composite waveform (pvlines):
The past composite waveform is drawn on the chart using solid lines. The color of the lines is determined by the direction of the waveform (green for upward, red for downward).
Drawing future composite waveform (fvlines):
The future composite waveform is drawn on the chart using dotted lines. The color of the lines is determined by the direction of the waveform (fuchsia for upward, yellow for downward).
Displaying cycle information in a table (table3):
A table is created to display the cycle information, including the rank, period, Bartel value, amplitude (or cycle strength), and phase of each detected cycle.
Filling the table with cycle information:
The indicator iterates through the detected cycles and retrieves the relevant information (period, amplitude, phase, and Bartel value) from the corresponding arrays. It then fills the table with this information, displaying the values up to six decimal places.
To summarize, this indicator generates a composite waveform based on the detected cycles in the financial data. It calculates the composite waveforms for both past and future time windows and visualizes them on the chart using colored lines. Additionally, it displays detailed cycle information in a table, including the rank, period, Bartel value, amplitude (or cycle strength), and phase of each detected cycle.
█ Enhancing the Goertzel Algorithm-Based Script for Financial Modeling and Trading
The Goertzel algorithm-based script for detecting dominant cycles in financial data is a powerful tool for financial modeling and trading. It provides valuable insights into the past behavior of these cycles and potential future impact. However, as with any algorithm, there is always room for improvement. This section discusses potential enhancements to the existing script to make it even more robust and versatile for financial modeling, general trading, advanced trading, and high-frequency finance trading.
Enhancements for Financial Modeling
Data preprocessing: One way to improve the script's performance for financial modeling is to introduce more advanced data preprocessing techniques. This could include removing outliers, handling missing data, and normalizing the data to ensure consistent and accurate results.
Additional detrending and smoothing methods: Incorporating more sophisticated detrending and smoothing techniques, such as wavelet transform or empirical mode decomposition, can help improve the script's ability to accurately identify cycles and trends in the data.
Machine learning integration: Integrating machine learning techniques, such as artificial neural networks or support vector machines, can help enhance the script's predictive capabilities, leading to more accurate financial models.
Enhancements for General and Advanced Trading
Customizable indicator integration: Allowing users to integrate their own technical indicators can help improve the script's effectiveness for both general and advanced trading. By enabling the combination of the dominant cycle information with other technical analysis tools, traders can develop more comprehensive trading strategies.
Risk management and position sizing: Incorporating risk management and position sizing functionality into the script can help traders better manage their trades and control potential losses. This can be achieved by calculating the optimal position size based on the user's risk tolerance and account size.
Multi-timeframe analysis: Enhancing the script to perform multi-timeframe analysis can provide traders with a more holistic view of market trends and cycles. By identifying dominant cycles on different timeframes, traders can gain insights into the potential confluence of cycles and make better-informed trading decisions.
Enhancements for High-Frequency Finance Trading
Algorithm optimization: To ensure the script's suitability for high-frequency finance trading, optimizing the algorithm for faster execution is crucial. This can be achieved by employing efficient data structures and refining the calculation methods to minimize computational complexity.
Real-time data streaming: Integrating real-time data streaming capabilities into the script can help high-frequency traders react to market changes more quickly. By continuously updating the cycle information based on real-time market data, traders can adapt their strategies accordingly and capitalize on short-term market fluctuations.
Order execution and trade management: To fully leverage the script's capabilities for high-frequency trading, implementing functionality for automated order execution and trade management is essential. This can include features such as stop-loss and take-profit orders, trailing stops, and automated trade exit strategies.
While the existing Goertzel algorithm-based script is a valuable tool for detecting dominant cycles in financial data, there are several potential enhancements that can make it even more powerful for financial modeling, general trading, advanced trading, and high-frequency finance trading. By incorporating these improvements, the script can become a more versatile and effective tool for traders and financial analysts alike.
█ Understanding the Limitations of the Goertzel Algorithm
While the Goertzel algorithm-based script for detecting dominant cycles in financial data provides valuable insights, it is important to be aware of its limitations and drawbacks. Some of the key drawbacks of this indicator are:
Lagging nature:
As with many other technical indicators, the Goertzel algorithm-based script can suffer from lagging effects, meaning that it may not immediately react to real-time market changes. This lag can lead to late entries and exits, potentially resulting in reduced profitability or increased losses.
Parameter sensitivity:
The performance of the script can be sensitive to the chosen parameters, such as the detrending methods, smoothing techniques, and cycle detection settings. Improper parameter selection may lead to inaccurate cycle detection or increased false signals, which can negatively impact trading performance.
Complexity:
The Goertzel algorithm itself is relatively complex, making it difficult for novice traders or those unfamiliar with the concept of cycle analysis to fully understand and effectively utilize the script. This complexity can also make it challenging to optimize the script for specific trading styles or market conditions.
Overfitting risk:
As with any data-driven approach, there is a risk of overfitting when using the Goertzel algorithm-based script. Overfitting occurs when a model becomes too specific to the historical data it was trained on, leading to poor performance on new, unseen data. This can result in misleading signals and reduced trading performance.
No guarantee of future performance: While the script can provide insights into past cycles and potential future trends, it is important to remember that past performance does not guarantee future results. Market conditions can change, and relying solely on the script's predictions without considering other factors may lead to poor trading decisions.
Limited applicability: The Goertzel algorithm-based script may not be suitable for all markets, trading styles, or timeframes. Its effectiveness in detecting cycles may be limited in certain market conditions, such as during periods of extreme volatility or low liquidity.
While the Goertzel algorithm-based script offers valuable insights into dominant cycles in financial data, it is essential to consider its drawbacks and limitations when incorporating it into a trading strategy. Traders should always use the script in conjunction with other technical and fundamental analysis tools, as well as proper risk management, to make well-informed trading decisions.
█ Interpreting Results
The Goertzel Browser indicator can be interpreted by analyzing the plotted lines and the table presented alongside them. The indicator plots two lines: past and future composite waves. The past composite wave represents the composite wave of the past price data, and the future composite wave represents the projected composite wave for the next period.
The past composite wave line displays a solid line, with green indicating a bullish trend and red indicating a bearish trend. On the other hand, the future composite wave line is a dotted line with fuchsia indicating a bullish trend and yellow indicating a bearish trend.
The table presented alongside the indicator shows the top cycles with their corresponding rank, period, Bartels, amplitude or cycle strength, and phase. The amplitude is a measure of the strength of the cycle, while the phase is the position of the cycle within the data series.
Interpreting the Goertzel Browser indicator involves identifying the trend of the past and future composite wave lines and matching them with the corresponding bullish or bearish color. Additionally, traders can identify the top cycles with the highest amplitude or cycle strength and utilize them in conjunction with other technical indicators and fundamental analysis for trading decisions.
This indicator is considered a repainting indicator because the value of the indicator is calculated based on the past price data. As new price data becomes available, the indicator's value is recalculated, potentially causing the indicator's past values to change. This can create a false impression of the indicator's performance, as it may appear to have provided a profitable trading signal in the past when, in fact, that signal did not exist at the time.
The Goertzel indicator is also non-endpointed, meaning that it is not calculated up to the current bar or candle. Instead, it uses a fixed amount of historical data to calculate its values, which can make it difficult to use for real-time trading decisions. For example, if the indicator uses 100 bars of historical data to make its calculations, it cannot provide a signal until the current bar has closed and become part of the historical data. This can result in missed trading opportunities or delayed signals.
█ Conclusion
The Goertzel Browser indicator is a powerful tool for identifying and analyzing cyclical patterns in financial markets. Its ability to detect multiple cycles of varying frequencies and strengths make it a valuable addition to any trader's technical analysis toolkit. However, it is important to keep in mind that the Goertzel Browser indicator should be used in conjunction with other technical analysis tools and fundamental analysis to achieve the best results. With continued refinement and development, the Goertzel Browser indicator has the potential to become a highly effective tool for financial modeling, general trading, advanced trading, and high-frequency finance trading. Its accuracy and versatility make it a promising candidate for further research and development.
█ Footnotes
What is the Bartels Test for Cycle Significance?
The Bartels Cycle Significance Test is a statistical method that determines whether the peaks and troughs of a time series are statistically significant. The test is named after its inventor, George Bartels, who developed it in the mid-20th century.
The Bartels test is designed to analyze the cyclical components of a time series, which can help traders and analysts identify trends and cycles in financial markets. The test calculates a Bartels statistic, which measures the degree of non-randomness or autocorrelation in the time series.
The Bartels statistic is calculated by first splitting the time series into two halves and calculating the range of the peaks and troughs in each half. The test then compares these ranges using a t-test, which measures the significance of the difference between the two ranges.
If the Bartels statistic is greater than a critical value, it indicates that the peaks and troughs in the time series are non-random and that there is a significant cyclical component to the data. Conversely, if the Bartels statistic is less than the critical value, it suggests that the peaks and troughs are random and that there is no significant cyclical component.
The Bartels Cycle Significance Test is particularly useful in financial analysis because it can help traders and analysts identify significant cycles in asset prices, which can in turn inform investment decisions. However, it is important to note that the test is not perfect and can produce false signals in certain situations, particularly in noisy or volatile markets. Therefore, it is always recommended to use the test in conjunction with other technical and fundamental indicators to confirm trends and cycles.
Deep-dive into the Hodrick-Prescott Fitler
The Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter is a statistical tool used in economics and finance to separate a time series into two components: a trend component and a cyclical component. It is a powerful tool for identifying long-term trends in economic and financial data and is widely used by economists, central banks, and financial institutions around the world.
The HP filter was first introduced in the 1990s by economists Robert Hodrick and Edward Prescott. It is a simple, two-parameter filter that separates a time series into a trend component and a cyclical component. The trend component represents the long-term behavior of the data, while the cyclical component captures the shorter-term fluctuations around the trend.
The HP filter works by minimizing the following objective function:
Minimize: (Sum of Squared Deviations) + λ (Sum of Squared Second Differences)
Where:
The first term represents the deviation of the data from the trend.
The second term represents the smoothness of the trend.
λ is a smoothing parameter that determines the degree of smoothness of the trend.
The smoothing parameter λ is typically set to a value between 100 and 1600, depending on the frequency of the data. Higher values of λ lead to a smoother trend, while lower values lead to a more volatile trend.
The HP filter has several advantages over other smoothing techniques. It is a non-parametric method, meaning that it does not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. It also allows for easy comparison of trends across different time series and can be used with data of any frequency.
However, the HP filter also has some limitations. It assumes that the trend is a smooth function, which may not be the case in some situations. It can also be sensitive to changes in the smoothing parameter λ, which may result in different trends for the same data. Additionally, the filter may produce unrealistic trends for very short time series.
Despite these limitations, the HP filter remains a valuable tool for analyzing economic and financial data. It is widely used by central banks and financial institutions to monitor long-term trends in the economy, and it can be used to identify turning points in the business cycle. The filter can also be used to analyze asset prices, exchange rates, and other financial variables.
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is a powerful tool for analyzing economic and financial data. It separates a time series into a trend component and a cyclical component, allowing for easy identification of long-term trends and turning points in the business cycle. While it has some limitations, it remains a valuable tool for economists, central banks, and financial institutions around the world.

kama
█ Description
An adaptive indicator could be defined as market conditions following indicator, in summary, the parameter of the indicator would be adjusted to fit its optimum value to the current price action. KAMA, Kaufman's Adaptive Moving Average, an adaptive trendline indicator developed by Perry J. Kaufman, with the notion of using the fastest trend possible based on the smallest calculation period for the existing market conditions, by applying an exponential smoothing formula to vary the speed of the trend (changing smoothing constant each period), as cited from Trading Systems and Methods p.g. 780 (Perry J. Kaufman). In this indicator, the proposed notion is on the Efficiency Ratio within the computation of KAMA, which will use a Dominant Cycle instead, an adaptive filter developed by John F. Ehlers, on determining the n periods, aiming to achieve an optimum lookback period, with respect to the original Efficiency Ratio calculation period of less than 14, and 8 to 10 is preferable.
█ Kaufman's Adaptive Moving Average
kama_ = kama + smoothing_constant * (price - kama )
where:
price = current price (source)
smoothing_constant = (efficiency_ratio * (fastest - slowest) + slowest)^2
fastest = 2/(fastest length + 1)
slowest = 2/(slowest length + 1)
efficiency_ratio = price - price /sum(abs(src - src , int(dominant_cycle))
█ Feature
The indicator will have a specified default parameter of: length = 14; fast_length = 2; slow_length = 30; hp_period = 48; source = ohlc4
KAMA trendline i.e. output value if price above the trendline and trendline indicates with green color, consider to buy/long position
while, if the price is below the trendline and the trendline indicates red color, consider to sell/short position
Hysteresis Band
Bar Color
other example

Adaptive RSI/Stochastic (ARSIS)As a trader, one of the most important aspects of technical analysis is identifying the dominant cycle of the market. The dominant cycle, also known as the market's "heartbeat," can provide valuable information on the current market trend and potential future price movements. One way to measure the dominant cycle is through the use of the MESA Adaptation - MAMA Cycle function, which is a part of the Dominant Cycle Estimators library.
I have developed an "Adaptive RSI/Stochastic" indicator that incorporates the MAMA Cycle function to provide more accurate and reliable signals. The indicator uses the MAMA Cycle function to calculate the period of the data, which is then used as a parameter in the calculation of the RSI and Stochastic indicators. By adapting the calculation of these indicators to the dominant cycle of the market, the resulting signals are more in tune with the current market conditions and can provide a more accurate representation of the current trend.
The MAMA Cycle function is a powerful tool that utilizes advanced mathematical techniques to accurately calculate the dominant cycle of the market. It takes into account the dynamic nature of the market and adapts the calculation of the period to the current conditions. The result is a more accurate and reliable measurement of the market's dominant cycle, which can be used to improve the performance of other indicators and trading strategies.
In conclusion, the Adaptive RSI/Stochastic indicator that I have developed, which incorporates the MAMA Cycle function, is a valuable tool for any trader looking to improve their technical analysis. By adapting the calculation of the RSI and Stochastic indicators to the dominant cycle of the market, the resulting signals are more in tune with the current market conditions and can provide a more accurate representation of the current trend.
Huge thank you to @lastguru for making this possible!

Trend Dominance Multi Timeframe [Misu]█ This indicator shows the repartition of bullish and bearish trends over a certain period in multiple timeframes. It's also showing the trending direction at the time.
█ Usages:
Trend dominance is expressed with two percentages: left is downtrend and right is uptrend. Cell colors turn green if dominance is up and red if it is down.
Knowing the trend dominance allows you to have a better overview of the market conditions.
You can use it to your advantage to favor long or short trades, reversal or breakout strategies, etc.
█ Features:
> Table colors
> Instant Trend Multitimeframe
> Trend Dominance Multitimeframe
█ Parameters:
> Length: Length is used to calculate ATR.
> Atr Multiplier: A factor used to balance the impact of the ATR on the Trend Bands calculation.
> UI Settings

PA-Adaptive TRIX Log [Loxx]PA-Adaptive TRIX Log is a Phase Accumulation Adaptive TRIX Log indicator. This adaptation smooths the signal to catch larger trends.
What is TRIX?
TRIX is a momentum oscillator that displays the percent rate of change of a TEMA . It was developed in the early 1980's by Jack Hutson, an editor for "Technical Analysis of Stocks and Commodities" magazine. With its triple smoothing, TRIX is designed to filter insignificant price movements. In his article he uses a logarithm of a price (which is in many versions, left out).
What is the Phase Accumulation Cycle?
The phase accumulation method of computing the dominant cycle is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. In this technique, we measure the phase at each sample by taking the arctangent of the ratio of the quadrature component to the in-phase component. A delta phase is generated by taking the difference of the phase between successive samples. At each sample we can then look backwards, adding up the delta phases.When the sum of the delta phases reaches 360 degrees, we must have passed through one full cycle, on average.The process is repeated for each new sample.
The phase accumulation method of cycle measurement always uses one full cycle’s worth of historical data.This is both an advantage and a disadvantage.The advantage is the lag in obtaining the answer scales directly with the cycle period.That is, the measurement of a short cycle period has less lag than the measurement of a longer cycle period. However, the number of samples used in making the measurement means the averaging period is variable with cycle period. longer averaging reduces the noise level compared to the signal.Therefore, shorter cycle periods necessarily have a higher out- put signal-to-noise ratio.
Included
Bar coloring
2 signal options
Alerts

Poly Cycle [Loxx]This is an example of what can be done by combining Legendre polynomials and analytic signals. I get a way of determining a smooth period and relative adaptive strength indicator without adding time lag.
This indicator displays the following:
The Least Squares fit of a polynomial to a DC subtracted time series - a best fit to a cycle.
The normalized analytic signal of the cycle (signal and quadrature).
The Phase shift of the analytic signal per bar.
The Period and HalfPeriod lengths, in bars of the current cycle.
A relative strength indicator of the time series over the cycle length. That is, adaptive relative strength over the cycle length.
The Relative Strength Indicator, is adaptive to the time series, and it can be smoothed by increasing the length of decreasing the number of degrees of freedom.
Other adaptive indicators based upon the period and can be similarly constructed.
There is some new math here, so I have broken the story up into 5 Parts:
Part 1:
Any time series can be decomposed into a orthogonal set of polynomials .
This is just math and here are some good references:
Legendre polynomials - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Peter Seffen, "On Digital Smoothing Filters: A Brief Review of Closed Form Solutions and Two New Filter Approaches", Circuits Systems Signal Process, Vol. 5, No 2, 1986
I gave some thought to what should be done with this and came to the conclusion that they can be used for basic smoothing of time series. For the analysis below, I decompose a time series into a low number of degrees of freedom and discard the zero mode to introduce smoothing.
That is:
time series => c_1 t + c_2 t^2 ... c_Max t^Max
This is the cycle. By construction, the cycle does not have a zero mode and more physically, I am defining the "Trend" to be the zero mode.
The data for the cycle and the fit of the cycle can be viewed by setting
ShowDataAndFit = TRUE;
There, you will see the fit of the last bar as well as the time series of the leading edge of the fits. If you don't know what I mean by the "leading edge", please see some of the postings in . The leading edges are in grayscale, and the fit of the last bar is in color.
I have chosen Length = 17 and Degree = 4 as the default. I am simply making sure by eye that the fit is reasonably good and degree 4 is the lowest polynomial that can represent a sine-like wave, and 17 is the smallest length that lets me calculate the Phase Shift (Part 3 below) using the Hilbert Transform of width=7 (Part 2 below).
Depending upon the fit you make, you will capture different cycles in the data. A fit that is too "smooth" will not see the smaller cycles, and a fit that is too "choppy" will not see the longer ones. The idea is to use the fit to try to suppress the smaller noise cycles while keeping larger signal cycles.
Part 2:
Every time series has an Analytic Signal, defined by applying the Hilbert Transform to it. You can think of the original time series as amplitude * cosine(theta) and the transformed series, called the quadrature, can be thought of as amplitude * sine(theta). By taking the ratio, you can get the angle theta, and this is exactly what was done by John Ehlers in . It lets you get a frequency out of the time series under consideration.
Amazon.com: Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications (9780471405672): John F. Ehlers: Books
It helps to have more references to understand this. There is a nice article on Wikipedia on it.
Read the part about the discrete Hilbert Transform:
en.wikipedia.org
If you really want to understand how to go from continuous to discrete, look up this article written by Richard Lyons:
www.dspguru.com
In the indicator below, I am calculating the normalized analytic signal, which can be written as:
s + i h where i is the imagery number, and s^2 + h^2 = 1;
s= signal = cosine(theta)
h = Hilbert transformed signal = quadrature = sine(theta)
The angle is therefore given by theta = arctan(h/s);
The analytic signal leading edge and the fit of the last bar of the cycle can be viewed by setting
ShowAnalyticSignal = TRUE;
The leading edges are in grayscale fit to the last bar is in color. Light (yellow) is the s term, and Dark (orange) is the quadrature (hilbert transform). Note that for every bar, s^2 + h^2 = 1 , by construction.
I am using a width = 7 Hilbert transform, just like Ehlers. (But you can adjust it if you want.) This transform has a 7 bar lag. I have put the lag into the plot statements, so the cycle info should be quite good at displaying minima and maxima (extrema).
Part 3:
The Phase shift is the amount of phase change from bar to bar.
It is a discrete unitary transformation that takes s + i h to s + i h
explicitly, T = (s+ih)*(s -ih ) , since s *s + h *h = 1.
writing it out, we find that T = T1 + iT2
where T1 = s*s + h*h and T2 = s*h -h*s
and the phase shift is given by PhaseShift = arctan(T2/T1);
Alas, I have no reference for this, all I doing is finding the rotation what takes the analytic signal at bar to the analytic signal at bar . T is the transfer matrix.
Of interest is the PhaseShift from the closest two bars to the present, given by the bar and bar since I am using a width=7 Hilbert transform, bar is the earliest bar with an analytic signal.
I store the phase shift from bar to bar as a time series called PhaseShift. It basically gives you the (7-bar delayed) leading edge the amount of phase angle change in the series.
You can see it by setting
ShowPhaseShift=TRUE
The green points are positive phase shifts and red points are negative phase shifts.
On most charts, I have looked at, the indicator is mostly green, but occasionally, the stock "retrogrades" and red appears. This happens when the cycle is "broken" and the cycle length starts to expand as a trend occurs.
Part 4:
The Period:
The Period is the number of bars required to generate a sum of PhaseShifts equal to 360 degrees.
The Half-period is the number of bars required to generate a sum of phase shifts equal to 180 degrees. It is usually not equal to 1/2 of the period.
You can see the Period and Half-period by setting
ShowPeriod=TRUE
The code is very simple here:
Value1=0;
Value2=0;
while Value1 < bar_index and math.abs(Value2) < 360 begin
Value2 = Value2 + PhaseShift ;
Value1 = Value1 + 1;
end;
Period = Value1;
The period is sensitive to the input length and degree values but not overly so. Any insight on this would be appreciated.
Part 5:
The Relative Strength indicator:
The Relative Strength is just the current value of the series minus the minimum over the last cycle divided by the maximum - minimum over the last cycle, normalized between +1 and -1.
RelativeStrength = -1 + 2*(Series-Min)/(Max-Min);
It therefore tells you where the current bar is relative to the cycle. If you want to smooth the indicator, then extend the period and/or reduce the polynomial degree.
In code:
NewLength = floor(Period + HilbertWidth+1);
Max = highest(Series,NewLength);
Min = lowest(Series,NewLength);
if Max>Min then
Note that the variable NewLength includes the lag that comes from the Hilbert transform, (HilbertWidth=7 by default).
Conclusion:
This is an example of what can be done by combining Legendre polynomials and analytic signals to determine a smooth period without adding time lag.
________________________________
Changes in this one : instead of using true/false options for every single way to display, use Type parameter as following :
1. The Least Squares fit of a polynomial to a DC subtracted time series - a best fit to a cycle.
2. The normalized analytic signal of the cycle (signal and quadrature).
3. The Phase shift of the analytic signal per bar.
4. The Period and HalfPeriod lengths, in bars of the current cycle.
5. A relative strength indicator of the time series over the cycle length. That is, adaptive relative strength over the cycle length.

PA-Adaptive MACD w/ Variety Levels [Loxx]PA-Adaptive MACD w/ Variety Levels is a Phase Accumulation Adaptive MACD with both floating and quantile levels. This is tuned for Forex. You'll have to adjust the Phase Accumulation Cycle settings to work for crypto and stock markets.
What is MACD?
Moving average convergence divergence ( MACD ) is a trend-following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two moving averages of a security’s price. The MACD is calculated by subtracting the 26-period exponential moving average ( EMA ) from the 12-period EMA .
What is the Phase Accumulation Cycle?
The phase accumulation method of computing the dominant cycle is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. In this technique, we measure the phase at each sample by taking the arctangent of the ratio of the quadrature component to the in-phase component. A delta phase is generated by taking the difference of the phase between successive samples. At each sample we can then look backwards, adding up the delta phases.When the sum of the delta phases reaches 360 degrees, we must have passed through one full cycle, on average.The process is repeated for each new sample.
The phase accumulation method of cycle measurement always uses one full cycle’s worth of historical data.This is both an advantage and a disadvantage.The advantage is the lag in obtaining the answer scales directly with the cycle period.That is, the measurement of a short cycle period has less lag than the measurement of a longer cycle period. However, the number of samples used in making the measurement means the averaging period is variable with cycle period. longer averaging reduces the noise level compared to the signal.Therefore, shorter cycle periods necessarily have a higher out- put signal-to-noise ratio.
Included:
Zero-line and signal cross options for bar coloring, signals, and alerts
Alerts
Signals
Loxx's Expanded Source Types
4 moving average types

APA Adaptive Fisher Transform [Loxx]APA Adaptive Fisher Transform is an adaptive cycle Fisher Transform using Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm to calculate the dominant cycle period.
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman’s adaptive moving average ( KAMA ) and Tushar Chande’s variable index dynamic average ( VIDYA ) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index ( RSI ), commodity channel index ( CCI ), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."
What is Fisher Transform?
The Fisher Transform is a technical indicator created by John F. Ehlers that converts prices into a Gaussian normal distribution.
The indicator highlights when prices have moved to an extreme, based on recent prices. This may help in spotting turning points in the price of an asset. It also helps show the trend and isolate the price waves within a trend.
Included:
Zero-line and signal cross options for bar coloring
Customizable overbought/oversold thresh-holds
Alerts
Signals

Phase Accumulation Adaptive Fisher Transform [Loxx]Phase Accumulation Adaptive Fisher Transform is an adaptive Fisher Transform using a modified version of Ehlers Phase Accumulation Cycle Period. This version of Phase Accumulation Cylce Period accepts as inputs: 1) total number of cycles you wish to inject into the calculation, this works as a multiplier so the higher this number, the longer the period output; 2) filter is to change the alpha value of the final smother before returning the period output.
What is the Phase Accumulation Cycle?
The phase accumulation method of computing the dominant cycle is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. In this technique, we measure the phase at each sample by taking the arctangent of the ratio of the quadrature component to the in-phase component. A delta phase is generated by taking the difference of the phase between successive samples. At each sample we can then look backwards, adding up the delta phases.When the sum of the delta phases reaches 360 degrees, we must have passed through one full cycle, on average.The process is repeated for each new sample.
The phase accumulation method of cycle measurement always uses one full cycle’s worth of historical data.This is both an advantage and a disadvantage.The advantage is the lag in obtaining the answer scales directly with the cycle period.That is, the measurement of a short cycle period has less lag than the measurement of a longer cycle period. However, the number of samples used in making the measurement means the averaging period is variable with cycle period. longer averaging reduces the noise level compared to the signal.Therefore, shorter cycle periods necessarily have a higher out- put signal-to-noise ratio.
What is Fisher Transform?
The Fisher Transform is a technical indicator created by John F. Ehlers that converts prices into a Gaussian normal distribution.
The indicator highlights when prices have moved to an extreme, based on recent prices. This may help in spotting turning points in the price of an asset. It also helps show the trend and isolate the price waves within a trend.
Included:
Zero-line and signal cross options for bar coloring
Customizable overbought/oversold thresh-holds
Alerts
Signals

Goertzel Cycle Period Adaptive Fisher Transform [Loxx]Goertzel Cycle Period Adaptive Fisher Transform is an adaptive Fisher Transform using the Goertzel Cycle Algorithm to derive length inputs.
What is Goertzel Cycle Algorithm?
Read here:
What is Fisher Transform?
The Fisher Transform is a technical indicator created by John F. Ehlers that converts prices into a Gaussian normal distribution.
The indicator highlights when prices have moved to an extreme, based on recent prices. This may help in spotting turning points in the price of an asset. It also helps show the trend and isolate the price waves within a trend.
Included:
Zero-line and signal cross options for bar coloring
Customizable overbought/oversold thresh-holds
Alerts
Signals
***Please note, the Goertzel Cycle Algorithm is processor heavy, so this indicator will take some time to load.

Goertzel Cycle Period [Loxx]Goertzel Cycle Period is an indicator that uses Goertzel algorithm to extract the cycle period of ticker's price input to then be injected into advanced, adaptive indicators and technical analysis algorithms.
The following information is extracted from: "MESA vs Goertzel-DFT, 2003 by Dennis Meyers"
Background
MESA which stands for Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis is a widely used mathematical technique designed to find the frequencies present in data. MESA was developed by J.P Burg for his Ph.D dissertation at Stanford University in 1975. The use of the MESA technique for stocks has been written about in many articles and has been popularized as a trading technique by John Ehlers.
The Fourier Transform is a mathematical technique named after the famed French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 1768-1830. In its digital form, namely the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT) series, is a widely used mathematical technique to find the frequencies of discrete time sampled data. The use of the DFT has been written about in many articles in this magazine (see references section).
Today, both MESA and DFT are widely used in science and engineering in digital signal processing. The application of MESA and Fourier mathematical techniques are prevalent in our everyday life from everything from television to cell phones to wireless internet to satellite communications.
MESA Advantages & Disadvantage
MESA is a mathematical technique that calculates the frequencies of a time series from the autoregressive coefficients of the time series. We have all heard of regression. The simplest regression is the straight line regression of price against time where price(t) = a+b*t and where a and b are calculated such that the square of the distance between price and the best fit straight line is minimized (also called least squares fitting). With autoregression we attempt to predict tomorrows price by a linear combination of M past prices.
One of the major advantages of MESA is that the frequency examined is not constrained to multiples of 1/N (1/N is equal to the DFT frequency spacing and N is equal to the number of sample points). For instance with the DFT and N data points we can only look a frequencies of 1/N, 2/N, Ö.., 0.5. With MESA we can examine any frequency band within that range and any frequency spacing between i/N and (i+1)/N . For example, if we had 100 bars of price data, we might be interested in looking for all cycles between 3 bars per cycle and 30 bars/ cycle only and with a frequency spacing of 0.5 bars/cycle. DFT would examine all bars per cycle of between 2 and 50 with a frequency spacing constrained to 1/100.
Another of the major advantages of MESA is that the dominant spectral (frequency) peaks of the price series, if they exist, can be identified with fewer samples than the DFT technique. For instance if we had a 10 bar price period and a high signal to noise ratio we could accurately identify this period with 40 data samples using the MESA technique. This same resolution might take 128 samples for the DFT. One major disadvantage of the MESA technique is that with low signal to noise ratios, that is below 6db (signal amplitude/noise amplitude < 2), the ability of MESA to find the dominant frequency peaks is severely diminished.(see Kay, Ref 10, p 437). With noisy price series this disadvantage can become a real problem. Another disadvantage of MESA is that when the dominant frequencies are found another procedure has to be used to get the amplitude and phases of these found frequencies. This two stage process can make MESA much slower than the DFT and FFT . The FFT stands for Fast Fourier Transform. The Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) is a computationally efficient algorithm which is a designed to rapidly evaluate the DFT. We will show in examples below the comparisons between the DFT & MESA using constructed signals with various noise levels.
DFT Advantages and Disadvantages.
The mathematical technique called the DFT takes a discrete time series(price) of N equally spaced samples and transforms or converts this time series through a mathematical operation into set of N complex numbers defined in what is called the frequency domain. Why would we what to do that? Well it turns out that we can do all kinds of neat analysis tricks in the frequency domain which are just to hard to do, computationally wise, with the original price series in the time domain. If we make the assumption that the price series we are examining is made up of signals of various frequencies plus noise, than in the frequency domain we can easily filter out the frequencies we have no interest in and minimize the noise in the data. We could then transform the resultant back into the time domain and produce a filtered price series that hopefully would be easier to trade. The advantages of the DFT and itís fast computation algorithm the FFT, are that it is extremely fast in calculating the frequencies of the input price series. In addition it can determine frequency peaks for very noisy price series even when the signal amplitude is less than the noise amplitude. One of the disadvantages of the FFT is that straight line, parabolic trends and edge effects in the price series can distort the frequency spectrum. In addition, end effects in the price series can distort the frequency spectrum. Another disadvantage of the FFT is that it needs a lot more data than MESA for spectral resolution. However this disadvantage has largely been nullified by the speed of today's computers.
Goertzel algorithm attempts to resolve these problems...
What is the Goertzel algorithm?
The Goertzel algorithm is a technique in digital signal processing (DSP) for efficient evaluation of the individual terms of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). It is useful in certain practical applications, such as recognition of dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) tones produced by the push buttons of the keypad of a traditional analog telephone. The algorithm was first described by Gerald Goertzel in 1958.
Like the DFT, the Goertzel algorithm analyses one selectable frequency component from a discrete signal. Unlike direct DFT calculations, the Goertzel algorithm applies a single real-valued coefficient at each iteration, using real-valued arithmetic for real-valued input sequences. For covering a full spectrum, the Goertzel algorithm has a higher order of complexity than fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms, but for computing a small number of selected frequency components, it is more numerically efficient. The simple structure of the Goertzel algorithm makes it well suited to small processors and embedded applications.
The main calculation in the Goertzel algorithm has the form of a digital filter, and for this reason the algorithm is often called a Goertzel filter
Where is Goertzel algorithm used?
This package contains the advanced mathematical technique called the Goertzel algorithm for discrete Fourier transforms. This mathematical technique is currently used in today's space-age satellite and communication applications and is applied here to stock and futures trading.
While the mathematical technique called the Goertzel algorithm is unknown to many, this algorithm is used everyday without even knowing it. When you press a cell phone button have you ever wondered how the telephone company knows what button tone you pushed? The answer is the Goertzel algorithm. This algorithm is built into tiny integrated circuits and immediately detects which of the 12 button tones(frequencies) you pushed.
Future Additions:
Bartels test for cycle significance, testing output cycles for utility
Hodrick Prescott Detrending, smoothing
Zero-Lag Regression Detrending, smoothing
High-pass or Double WMA filtering of source input price data
References:
1. Burg, J. P., ëMaximum Entropy Spectral Analysisî, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. May 1975.
2. Kay, Steven M., ìModern Spectral Estimationî, Prentice Hall, 1988
3. Marple, Lawrence S. Jr., ìDigital Spectral Analysis With Applicationsî, Prentice Hall, 1987
4. Press, William H., et al, ìNumerical Receipts in C++: the Art of Scientific Computingî,
Cambridge Press, 2002.
5. Oppenheim, A, Schafer, R. and Buck, J., ìDiscrete Time Signal Processingî, Prentice Hall,
1996, pp663-634
6. Proakis, J. and Manolakis, D. ìDigital Signal Processing-Principles, Algorithms and
Applicationsî, Prentice Hall, 1996., pp480-481
7. Goertzel, G., ìAn Algorithm for he evaluation of finite trigonometric seriesî American Math
Month, Vol 65, 1958 pp34-35.

loxxpaaspecialLibrary "loxxpaaspecial"
loxxpaaspecial: Ehlers Phase Accumulation Dominant Cycle Period with multiplier and filter
paa(src, mult, filt)
(src, mult, filt)
Parameters:
src : float
mult : float
filt : float
Returns: result float

Phase-Accumulation Adaptive EMA w/ Expanded Source Types [Loxx]Phase-Accumulation Adaptive EMA w/ Expanded Source Types is a Phase Accumulation Adaptive Exponential Moving Average with Loxx's Expanded Source Types. This indicator is meant to better capture trend movements using dominant cycle inputs. Alerts are included.
What is Phase Accumulation?
The phase accumulation method of computing the dominant cycle is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. In this technique, we measure the phase at each sample by taking the arctangent of the ratio of the quadrature component to the in-phase component. A delta phase is generated by taking the difference of the phase between successive samples. At each sample we can then look backwards, adding up the delta phases.When the sum of the delta phases reaches 360 degrees, we must have passed through one full cycle, on average.The process is repeated for each new sample.
The phase accumulation method of cycle measurement always uses one full cycle’s worth of historical data.This is both an advantage and a disadvantage.The advantage is the lag in obtaining the answer scales directly with the cycle period.That is, the measurement of a short cycle period has less lag than the measurement of a longer cycle period. However, the number of samples used in making the measurement means the averaging period is variable with cycle period. longer averaging reduces the noise level compared to the signal.Therefore, shorter cycle periods necessarily have a higher out- put signal-to-noise ratio.
Included:
-Toggle on/off bar coloring
-Alerts

APA-Adaptive, Ehlers Early Onset Trend [Loxx]APA-Adaptive, Ehlers Early Onset Trend is Ehlers Early Onset Trend but with Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm dominant cycle period input.
What is Ehlers Early Onset Trend?
The Onset Trend Detector study is a trend analyzing technical indicator developed by John F. Ehlers , based on a non-linear quotient transform. Two of Mr. Ehlers' previous studies, the Super Smoother Filter and the Roofing Filter, were used and expanded to create this new complex technical indicator. Being a trend-following analysis technique, its main purpose is to address the problem of lag that is common among moving average type indicators.
The Onset Trend Detector first applies the EhlersRoofingFilter to the input data in order to eliminate cyclic components with periods longer than, for example, 100 bars (default value, customizable via input parameters) as those are considered spectral dilation. Filtered data is then subjected to re-filtering by the Super Smoother Filter so that the noise (cyclic components with low length) is reduced to minimum. The period of 10 bars is a default maximum value for a wave cycle to be considered noise; it can be customized via input parameters as well. Once the data is cleared of both noise and spectral dilation, the filter processes it with the automatic gain control algorithm which is widely used in digital signal processing. This algorithm registers the most recent peak value and normalizes it; the normalized value slowly decays until the next peak swing. The ratio of previously filtered value to the corresponding peak value is then quotiently transformed to provide the resulting oscillator. The quotient transform is controlled by the K coefficient: its allowed values are in the range from -1 to +1. K values close to 1 leave the ratio almost untouched, those close to -1 will translate it to around the additive inverse, and those close to zero will collapse small values of the ratio while keeping the higher values high.
Indicator values around 1 signify uptrend and those around -1, downtrend.
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman’s adaptive moving average ( KAMA ) and Tushar Chande’s variable index dynamic average ( VIDYA ) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index ( RSI ), commodity channel index ( CCI ), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."

Phase Accumulation, Smoothed Williams %R Histogram [Loxx]Phase Accumulation, Smoothed Williams %R Histogram is a Williams %R indicator using dynamic inputs from Ehlers Phase Accumulation Dominant Cycle Period Algorithm. This indicator includes alerts and signals and is in a smoothed histogram form. The version of Phase Accumulation in this indicator is a modified form of of Ehlers algorithm to allow for better smoothing and cycle length selection.
What is Williams %R?
Williams %R , also known as the Williams Percent Range, is a type of momentum indicator that moves between 0 and -100 and measures overbought and oversold levels. The Williams %R may be used to find entry and exit points in the market. The indicator is very similar to the Stochastic oscillator and is used in the same way. It was developed by Larry Williams and it compares a stock’s closing price to the high-low range over a specific period, typically 14 days or periods.
What is Phase Accumulation?
The phase accumulation method of computing the dominant cycle is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. In this technique, we measure the phase at each sample by taking the arctangent of the ratio of the quadrature component to the in-phase component. A delta phase is generated by taking the difference of the phase between successive samples. At each sample we can then look backwards, adding up the delta phases.When the sum of the delta phases reaches 360 degrees, we must have passed through one full cycle, on average.The process is repeated for each new sample.
The phase accumulation method of cycle measurement always uses one full cycle’s worth of historical data.This is both an advantage and a disadvantage.The advantage is the lag in obtaining the answer scales directly with the cycle period.That is, the measurement of a short cycle period has less lag than the measurement of a longer cycle period. However, the number of samples used in making the measurement means the averaging period is variable with cycle period. longer averaging reduces the noise level compared to the signal.Therefore, shorter cycle periods necessarily have a higher out- put signal-to-noise ratio.
Included:
-Toggle on/off bar coloring
-Toggle on/off signals
-Alerts long/short
-Loxx's Expanded Source Types Library

Adaptivity: Measures of Dominant Cycles and Price Trend [Loxx]Adaptivity: Measures of Dominant Cycles and Price Trend is an indicator that outputs adaptive lengths using various methods for dominant cycle and price trend timeframe adaptivity. While the information output from this indicator might be useful for the average trader in one off circumstances, this indicator is really meant for those need a quick comparison of dynamic length outputs who wish to fine turn algorithms and/or create adaptive indicators.
This indicator compares adaptive output lengths of all publicly known adaptive measures. Additional adaptive measures will be added as they are discovered and made public.
The first released of this indicator includes 6 measures. An additional three measures will be added with updates. Please check back regularly for new measures.
Ehers:
Autocorrelation Periodogram
Band-pass
Instantaneous Cycle
Hilbert Transformer
Dual Differentiator
Phase Accumulation (future release)
Homodyne (future release)
Jurik:
Composite Fractal Behavior (CFB)
Adam White:
Veritical Horizontal Filter (VHF) (future release)
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman's adaptive moving average (KAMA) and Tushar Chande's variable index dynamic average (VIDYA) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index (RSI), commodity channel index (CCI), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."
What is this Hilbert Transformer?
An analytic signal allows for time-variable parameters and is a generalization of the phasor concept, which is restricted to time-invariant amplitude, phase, and frequency. The analytic representation of a real-valued function or signal facilitates many mathematical manipulations of the signal. For example, computing the phase of a signal or the power in the wave is much simpler using analytic signals.
The Hilbert transformer is the technique to create an analytic signal from a real one. The conventional Hilbert transformer is theoretically an infinite-length FIR filter. Even when the filter length is truncated to a useful but finite length, the induced lag is far too large to make the transformer useful for trading.
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, pages 186-187:
"I want to emphasize that the only reason for including this section is for completeness. Unless you are interested in research, I suggest you skip this section entirely. To further emphasize my point, do not use the code for trading. A vastly superior approach to compute the dominant cycle in the price data is the autocorrelation periodogram. The code is included because the reader may be able to capitalize on the algorithms in a way that I do not see. All the algorithms encapsulated in the code operate reasonably well on theoretical waveforms that have no noise component. My conjecture at this time is that the sample-to-sample noise simply swamps the computation of the rate change of phase, and therefore the resulting calculations to find the dominant cycle are basically worthless.The imaginary component of the Hilbert transformer cannot be smoothed as was done in the Hilbert transformer indicator because the smoothing destroys the orthogonality of the imaginary component."
What is the Dual Differentiator, a subset of Hilbert Transformer?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 187:
"The first algorithm to compute the dominant cycle is called the dual differentiator. In this case, the phase angle is computed from the analytic signal as the arctangent of the ratio of the imaginary component to the real component. Further, the angular frequency is defined as the rate change of phase. We can use these facts to derive the cycle period."
What is the Phase Accumulation, a subset of Hilbert Transformer?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 189:
"The next algorithm to compute the dominant cycle is the phase accumulation method. The phase accumulation method of computing the dominant cycle is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. In this technique, we measure the phase at each sample by taking the arctangent of the ratio of the quadrature component to the in-phase component. A delta phase is generated by taking the difference of the phase between successive samples. At each sample we can then look backwards, adding up the delta phases.When the sum of the delta phases reaches 360 degrees, we must have passed through one full cycle, on average.The process is repeated for each new sample.
The phase accumulation method of cycle measurement always uses one full cycle's worth of historical data.This is both an advantage and a disadvantage.The advantage is the lag in obtaining the answer scales directly with the cycle period.That is, the measurement of a short cycle period has less lag than the measurement of a longer cycle period. However, the number of samples used in making the measurement means the averaging period is variable with cycle period. longer averaging reduces the noise level compared to the signal.Therefore, shorter cycle periods necessarily have a higher out- put signal-to-noise ratio."
What is the Homodyne, a subset of Hilbert Transformer?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 192:
"The third algorithm for computing the dominant cycle is the homodyne approach. Homodyne means the signal is multiplied by itself. More precisely, we want to multiply the signal of the current bar with the complex value of the signal one bar ago. The complex conjugate is, by definition, a complex number whose sign of the imaginary component has been reversed."
What is the Instantaneous Cycle?
The Instantaneous Cycle Period Measurement was authored by John Ehlers; it is built upon his Hilbert Transform Indicator.
From his Ehlers' book Cybernetic Analysis for Stocks and Futures: Cutting-Edge DSP Technology to Improve Your Trading by John F. Ehlers, 2004, page 107:
"It is obvious that cycles exist in the market. They can be found on any chart by the most casual observer. What is not so clear is how to identify those cycles in real time and how to take advantage of their existence. When Welles Wilder first introduced the relative strength index (rsi), I was curious as to why he selected 14 bars as the basis of his calculations. I reasoned that if i knew the correct market conditions, then i could make indicators such as the rsi adaptive to those conditions. Cycles were the answer. I knew cycles could be measured. Once i had the cyclic measurement, a host of automatically adaptive indicators could follow.
Measurement of market cycles is not easy. The signal-to-noise ratio is often very low, making measurement difficult even using a good measurement technique. Additionally, the measurements theoretically involve simultaneously solving a triple infinity of parameter values. The parameters required for the general solutions were frequency, amplitude, and phase. Some standard engineering tools, like fast fourier transforms (ffs), are simply not appropriate for measuring market cycles because ffts cannot simultaneously meet the stationarity constraints and produce results with reasonable resolution. Therefore i introduced maximum entropy spectral analysis (mesa) for the measurement of market cycles. This approach, originally developed to interpret seismographic information for oil exploration, produces high-resolution outputs with an exceptionally short amount of information. A short data length improves the probability of having nearly stationary data. Stationary data means that frequency and amplitude are constant over the length of the data. I noticed over the years that the cycles were ephemeral. Their periods would be continuously increasing and decreasing. Their amplitudes also were changing, giving variable signal-to-noise ratio conditions. Although all this is going on with the cyclic components, the enduring characteristic is that generally only one tradable cycle at a time is present for the data set being used. I prefer the term dominant cycle to denote that one component. The assumption that there is only one cycle in the data collapses the difficulty of the measurement process dramatically."
What is the Band-pass Cycle?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 47:
"Perhaps the least appreciated and most underutilized filter in technical analysis is the band-pass filter. The band-pass filter simultaneously diminishes the amplitude at low frequencies, qualifying it as a detrender, and diminishes the amplitude at high frequencies, qualifying it as a data smoother. It passes only those frequency components from input to output in which the trader is interested. The filtering produced by a band-pass filter is superior because the rejection in the stop bands is related to its bandwidth. The degree of rejection of undesired frequency components is called selectivity. The band-stop filter is the dual of the band-pass filter. It rejects a band of frequency components as a notch at the output and passes all other frequency components virtually unattenuated. Since the bandwidth of the deep rejection in the notch is relatively narrow and since the spectrum of market cycles is relatively broad due to systemic noise, the band-stop filter has little application in trading."
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 59:
"The band-pass filter can be used as a relatively simple measurement of the dominant cycle. A cycle is complete when the waveform crosses zero two times from the last zero crossing. Therefore, each successive zero crossing of the indicator marks a half cycle period. We can establish the dominant cycle period as twice the spacing between successive zero crossings."
What is Composite Fractal Behavior (CFB)?
All around you mechanisms adjust themselves to their environment. From simple thermostats that react to air temperature to computer chips in modern cars that respond to changes in engine temperature, r.p.m.'s, torque, and throttle position. It was only a matter of time before fast desktop computers applied the mathematics of self-adjustment to systems that trade the financial markets.
Unlike basic systems with fixed formulas, an adaptive system adjusts its own equations. For example, start with a basic channel breakout system that uses the highest closing price of the last N bars as a threshold for detecting breakouts on the up side. An adaptive and improved version of this system would adjust N according to market conditions, such as momentum, price volatility or acceleration.
Since many systems are based directly or indirectly on cycles, another useful measure of market condition is the periodic length of a price chart's dominant cycle, (DC), that cycle with the greatest influence on price action.
The utility of this new DC measure was noted by author Murray Ruggiero in the January '96 issue of Futures Magazine. In it. Mr. Ruggiero used it to adaptive adjust the value of N in a channel breakout system. He then simulated trading 15 years of D-Mark futures in order to compare its performance to a similar system that had a fixed optimal value of N. The adaptive version produced 20% more profit!
This DC index utilized the popular MESA algorithm (a formulation by John Ehlers adapted from Burg's maximum entropy algorithm, MEM). Unfortunately, the DC approach is problematic when the market has no real dominant cycle momentum, because the mathematics will produce a value whether or not one actually exists! Therefore, we developed a proprietary indicator that does not presuppose the presence of market cycles. It's called CFB (Composite Fractal Behavior) and it works well whether or not the market is cyclic.
CFB examines price action for a particular fractal pattern, categorizes them by size, and then outputs a composite fractal size index. This index is smooth, timely and accurate
Essentially, CFB reveals the length of the market's trending action time frame. Long trending activity produces a large CFB index and short choppy action produces a small index value. Investors have found many applications for CFB which involve scaling other existing technical indicators adaptively, on a bar-to-bar basis.
What is VHF Adaptive Cycle?
Vertical Horizontal Filter (VHF) was created by Adam White to identify trending and ranging markets. VHF measures the level of trend activity, similar to ADX DI. Vertical Horizontal Filter does not, itself, generate trading signals, but determines whether signals are taken from trend or momentum indicators. Using this trend information, one is then able to derive an average cycle length.

Adaptive, Jurik-Filtered, JMA/DWMA MACD [Loxx]Adaptive, Jurik-Filtered, JMA/DWMA MACD is MACD oscillator with a twist. The traditional calculation of MACD is the between two EMAs of price. This traditional approach yields a very noisy and lagged signal. To solve this problem, JMA/DWMA MACD uses the difference between adaptive Juirk-Filtered price and adaptive DWMA to yield a marked improvement over traditional MACD.
What is JMA / DWMA oscillator (MACD)?
Of all the different combinations of moving average filters to use for a MACD oscillator, we prefer using the JMA - DWMA combination.
JMA is ideal for the fast moving average line because it is quick to respond to reversals, is smooth and can be set to have no overshoot. DWMA (double weighted moving average) is ideal for the slower line as is tends to delay reversing direction until JMA crosses it.
What is Jurik Volty used in the Juirk Filter?
One of the lesser known qualities of Juirk smoothing is that the Jurik smoothing process is adaptive. "Jurik Volty" (a sort of market volatility ) is what makes Jurik smoothing adaptive. The Jurik Volty calculation can be used as both a standalone indicator and to smooth other indicators that you wish to make adaptive.
What is the Jurik Moving Average?
Have you noticed how moving averages add some lag (delay) to your signals? ... especially when price gaps up or down in a big move, and you are waiting for your moving average to catch up? Wait no more! JMA eliminates this problem forever and gives you the best of both worlds: low lag and smooth lines.
Ideally, you would like a filtered signal to be both smooth and lag-free. Lag causes delays in your trades, and increasing lag in your indicators typically result in lower profits. In other words, late comers get what's left on the table after the feast has already begun.
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman’s adaptive moving average ( KAMA ) and Tushar Chande’s variable index dynamic average ( VIDYA ) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index ( RSI ), commodity channel index ( CCI ), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."
Included
- Toggle on/off bar coloring

Adaptive, Jurik-Filtered, Floating RSI [Loxx]Adaptive, Jurik-Filtered, Floating RSI is an adaptive RSI indicator that smooths the RSI signal with a Jurik Filter.
This indicator contains three different types of RSI. They are following.
Wilders' RSI:
The Relative Strength Index ( RSI ) is a well versed momentum based oscillator which is used to measure the speed (velocity) as well as the change (magnitude) of directional price movements. Essentially RSI , when graphed, provides a visual mean to monitor both the current, as well as historical, strength and weakness of a particular market. The strength or weakness is based on closing prices over the duration of a specified trading period creating a reliable metric of price and momentum changes. Given the popularity of cash settled instruments (stock indexes) and leveraged financial products (the entire field of derivatives); RSI has proven to be a viable indicator of price movements.
RSX RSI:
RSI is a very popular technical indicator, because it takes into consideration market speed, direction and trend uniformity. However, the its widely criticized drawback is its noisy (jittery) appearance. The Jurk RSX retains all the useful features of RSI , but with one important exception: the noise is gone with no added lag.
Rapid RSI:
Rapid RSI Indicator, from Ian Copsey's article in the October 2006 issue of Stocks & Commodities magazine.
RapidRSI resembles Wilder's RSI , but uses a SMA instead of a WilderMA for internal smoothing of price change accumulators.
This indicator also uses adaptive cycles to calculate input lengths
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman’s adaptive moving average ( KAMA ) and Tushar Chande’s variable index dynamic average ( VIDYA ) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index ( RSI ), commodity channel index ( CCI ), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."
Lastly, RSI is filtered and smoothed using a Jurik Filter
What is Jurik Volty?
One of the lesser known qualities of Juirk smoothing is that the Jurik smoothing process is adaptive. "Jurik Volty" (a sort of market volatility ) is what makes Jurik smoothing adaptive. The Jurik Volty calculation can be used as both a standalone indicator and to smooth other indicators that you wish to make adaptive.
What is the Jurik Moving Average?
Have you noticed how moving averages add some lag (delay) to your signals? ... especially when price gaps up or down in a big move, and you are waiting for your moving average to catch up? Wait no more! JMA eliminates this problem forever and gives you the best of both worlds: low lag and smooth lines.
Ideally, you would like a filtered signal to be both smooth and lag-free. Lag causes delays in your trades, and increasing lag in your indicators typically result in lower profits. In other words, late comers get what's left on the table after the feast has already begun.
Usage
-Red fill color when RSI is in overbought zone means a possible bear trend is incoming
-Green fill color when RSI is in overbought zone means a possible bear trend is incoming
Included
-Bar coloring

Adaptive Jurik Filter Volatility Oscillator [Loxx]Adaptive Jurik Filter Volatility Oscillator uses Jurik Volty and Adaptive Double Jurik Filter Moving Average (AJFMA) to derive Jurik Filter smoothed volatility.
What is Jurik Volty?
One of the lesser known qualities of Juirk smoothing is that the Jurik smoothing process is adaptive. "Jurik Volty" (a sort of market volatility ) is what makes Jurik smoothing adaptive. The Jurik Volty calculation can be used as both a standalone indicator and to smooth other indicators that you wish to make adaptive.
What is the Jurik Moving Average?
Have you noticed how moving averages add some lag (delay) to your signals? ... especially when price gaps up or down in a big move, and you are waiting for your moving average to catch up? Wait no more! JMA eliminates this problem forever and gives you the best of both worlds: low lag and smooth lines.
Ideally, you would like a filtered signal to be both smooth and lag-free. Lag causes delays in your trades, and increasing lag in your indicators typically result in lower profits. In other words, late comers get what's left on the table after the feast has already begun.
That's why investors, banks and institutions worldwide ask for the Jurik Research Moving Average ( JMA ). You may apply it just as you would any other popular moving average. However, JMA's improved timing and smoothness will astound you.
What is adaptive Jurik volatility?
One of the lesser known qualities of Juirk smoothing is that the Jurik smoothing process is adaptive. "Jurik Volty" (a sort of market volatility ) is what makes Jurik smoothing adaptive. The Jurik Volty calculation can be used as both a standalone indicator and to smooth other indicators that you wish to make adaptive.
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman’s adaptive moving average ( KAMA ) and Tushar Chande’s variable index dynamic average ( VIDYA ) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index ( RSI ), commodity channel index ( CCI ), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."
Included
- UI options to color bars

Adaptive Jurik Filter Volatility Bands [Loxx]Adaptive Jurik Filter Volatility Bands uses Jurik Volty and Adaptive, Double Jurik Filter Moving Average (AJFMA) to derive Jurik Filter smoothed volatility channels around an Adaptive Jurik Filter Moving Average. Bands are placed at 1, 2, and 3 deviations from the core basline.
What is Jurik Volty?
One of the lesser known qualities of Juirk smoothing is that the Jurik smoothing process is adaptive. "Jurik Volty" (a sort of market volatility ) is what makes Jurik smoothing adaptive. The Jurik Volty calculation can be used as both a standalone indicator and to smooth other indicators that you wish to make adaptive.
What is the Jurik Moving Average?
Have you noticed how moving averages add some lag (delay) to your signals? ... especially when price gaps up or down in a big move, and you are waiting for your moving average to catch up? Wait no more! JMA eliminates this problem forever and gives you the best of both worlds: low lag and smooth lines.
Ideally, you would like a filtered signal to be both smooth and lag-free. Lag causes delays in your trades, and increasing lag in your indicators typically result in lower profits. In other words, late comers get what's left on the table after the feast has already begun.
That's why investors, banks and institutions worldwide ask for the Jurik Research Moving Average ( JMA ). You may apply it just as you would any other popular moving average. However, JMA's improved timing and smoothness will astound you.
What is adaptive Jurik volatility?
One of the lesser known qualities of Juirk smoothing is that the Jurik smoothing process is adaptive. "Jurik Volty" (a sort of market volatility ) is what makes Jurik smoothing adaptive. The Jurik Volty calculation can be used as both a standalone indicator and to smooth other indicators that you wish to make adaptive.
What is an adaptive cycle, and what is Ehlers Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm?
From his Ehlers' book Cycle Analytics for Traders Advanced Technical Trading Concepts by John F. Ehlers , 2013, page 135:
"Adaptive filters can have several different meanings. For example, Perry Kaufman’s adaptive moving average ( KAMA ) and Tushar Chande’s variable index dynamic average ( VIDYA ) adapt to changes in volatility . By definition, these filters are reactive to price changes, and therefore they close the barn door after the horse is gone.The adaptive filters discussed in this chapter are the familiar Stochastic , relative strength index ( RSI ), commodity channel index ( CCI ), and band-pass filter.The key parameter in each case is the look-back period used to calculate the indicator. This look-back period is commonly a fixed value. However, since the measured cycle period is changing, it makes sense to adapt these indicators to the measured cycle period. When tradable market cycles are observed, they tend to persist for a short while.Therefore, by tuning the indicators to the measure cycle period they are optimized for current conditions and can even have predictive characteristics.
The dominant cycle period is measured using the Autocorrelation Periodogram Algorithm. That dominant cycle dynamically sets the look-back period for the indicators. I employ my own streamlined computation for the indicators that provide smoother and easier to interpret outputs than traditional methods. Further, the indicator codes have been modified to remove the effects of spectral dilation.This basically creates a whole new set of indicators for your trading arsenal."
Included
- UI options to shut off colors and bands